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The herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that could be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. We have previously shown that paraquat penetrates through the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by neural cells. In this study, we examined the in vivo toxic mechanism of paraquat to dopamine neurons. GBR-12909, a selective dopamine transporter(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To assess the quality of life (QOL) in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS), and the relationship between the QOL and severity of OSAS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and mood. METHODS Sixty patients with OSAS and 34 normal control subjects were assessed for QOL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 Health(More)
The extracellular domain of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha (mGluR1alpha) forms a dimer and the ligand, glutamate, induces a structural rearrangement in this domain. However, the conformational change in the cytoplasmic domain, which is critical for mGluR1alpha's interaction with G proteins, remains unclear. Here we investigated the(More)
Due to the structural similarity to N-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)), paraquat might induce dopaminergic toxicity in the brain. However, its blood--brain barrier (BBB) penetration has not been well documented. We studied the manner of BBB penetration and neural cell uptake of paraquat using a brain microdialysis technique with HPLC/UV detection in(More)
The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) selectively activates group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Systemic administration of inhibitors of the enzymes that inactivate NAAG results in decreased pain responses in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. These effects are blocked by a group II mGluR antagonist.(More)
PGF(2alpha) is one of the major prostanoids produced by the kidney. The cellular effects of PGF(2alpha) are mediated by a G protein-coupled transmembrane receptor designated the FP receptor. Both in situ hybridization and beta-galactosidase knocked into the endogenous FP locus were used to determine the cellular distribution of the mouse FP receptor.(More)
PGF(2alpha) is the most abundant prostaglandin detected in urine; however, its renal effects are poorly characterized. The present study cloned a PGF-prostanoid receptor (FP) from the rabbit kidney and determined the functional consequences of its activation. Nuclease protection assay showed that FP mRNA expression predominates in rabbit ovary and kidney.(More)
Klotho has been investigated as an anti-aging protein that is predominantly expressed in the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys and in the choroid plexus of the brain. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between the soluble form of Klotho and renal function in chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, a relationship(More)
In Sustainability Science (SS) it is not only difficult to identify what needs to be solved but how to solve the problems once identified. There has been no consensus on underlying question of “What is structuring in SS?” This paper focuses on articulating in the form of a reference model a set of required elements, functions, and actions(More)
We point out that thermal relic abundance of the dark matter is strongly altered by a non-perturbative effect called the Sommerfeld enhancement, when constituent particles of the dark matter are non-singlet under the SU(2)L gauge interaction and much heavier than the weak gauge bosons. Typical candidates for such dark matter particles are the heavy winoand(More)