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The herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that could be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. We have previously shown that paraquat penetrates through the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by neural cells. In this study, we examined the in vivo toxic mechanism of paraquat to dopamine neurons. GBR-12909, a selective dopamine transporter(More)
The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) selectively activates group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Systemic administration of inhibitors of the enzymes that inactivate NAAG results in decreased pain responses in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. These effects are blocked by a group II mGluR antagonist.(More)
In Sustainability Science (SS) it is not only difficult to identify what needs to be solved but how to solve the problems once identified. There has been no consensus on underlying question of " What is structuring in SS? " This paper focuses on articulating in the form of a reference model a set of required elements, functions, and actions for structuring(More)
Due to the structural similarity to N-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)), paraquat might induce dopaminergic toxicity in the brain. However, its blood--brain barrier (BBB) penetration has not been well documented. We studied the manner of BBB penetration and neural cell uptake of paraquat using a brain microdialysis technique with HPLC/UV detection in(More)
We describe two cases of complex partial seizures with ictal violent movements arising from the insular cortex. The first patient, a 14-year-old girl, presented with hyperkinetic behavior such as rolling, thrashing, and pedaling, and the second case, a 38-year-old woman, had been suffering from frequent daytime hyperkinetic seizures characterized by bizarre(More)
Ultrasound can be perceived by bone conduction, and its characteristics differ from those of air-conducted audible sound (ACAS) in some respects. Despite many studies on ultrasonic hearing, the details have not yet been clarified. In this study, to elucidate the perception mechanism, the masking of bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) produced by ACAS and the(More)
The role of glutamate in the N-methyl-4-phenyldihydropyridinium (MPP+) toxicity has been argued in the past decade. However, the effects of glutamate efflux and NMDA antagonist on MPP+-induced dopamine overflow have not been documented. To clarify this, we perfused MPP+ through a microdialysis probe in the striatum of freely moving mature C57BL/6 mice. The(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease are common conditions in older adults, and often occur concurrently. Bone disease is caused by increased bone turnover accompanying secondary hyperparathyroidism, and by factors such as bone metabolic disorder accompanying kidney disease and postmenopausal or age-related osteoporosis, even in hemodialysis(More)
Orexin-A has been reported to produce an analgesic effect in the hot plate test and in the inflammatory pain models. In the present study, the authors examined the effect of orexin-A on the mechanical allodynia induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (a model of neuropathic pain) in the rat. Partial sciatic nerve ligation is created by tight ligation of(More)
Orexin-A and orexin-1 receptors are found in the dorsal root ganglion cells and the spinal dorsal horn and this suggests that orexin-A is involved in the spinal nociceptive transmission. The authors examined the effect of intrathecally administered orexin-A on the level of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by paw carrageenan injection in(More)