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A wrinkle formation mechanism with cutaneous aging is addressed through a mechanical calculation of linear buckling. Skin is divided into five mechanically distinct layers in this study. In general, the outer layer is stiffer than the inner layer, so buckling occurs in the outer layer against the uniform compression caused by muscle contraction. This(More)
Determining scapular position is a major issue in reconstructing the skeletal systems of extinct quadruped archosaurs and mammals, because the proximal portion of the scapulae has no direct skeletal joint with the vertebrae or ribs. When quadrupeds stand or walk, their trunk is suspended between the forelimbs by the serratus muscles, which arises from the(More)
Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12 Al foams with porosities of 67%-78% were fabricated from Al alloy die castings without using a blowing agent(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Does the morphology of wrinkles alter gradually with aging or suddenly at a certain age? On the basis of the theoretic wrinkle simulation of ideal skin, we have suggested that the wrinkle morphology suddenly changes from stratum corneum wrinkling to epidermis wrinkling; the former induces shallow fine furrows, and the latter induces deep(More)
A mechanism of generating passive feeding flow for the Devonian spiriferide brachiopod Paraspirifer bownockeri was theoretically elucidated through fluid dynamics simulations for flow around rigid shells. The RANS equations were used as a turbulence model, and the unsteady incompressible flow was solved using the finite volume method. Two directions of(More)
Aluminum foam has received considerable attention in various fields and is expected to be used as an engineering material owing to its high energy absorption properties and light weight. To improve the mechanical properties of aluminum foam, combining it with dense tubes, such as aluminum foam-filled tubes, was considered necessary. In this study, an(More)
Aluminum foam is usually used as the core of composite materials by combining it with dense materials, such as in Al foam core sandwich panels and Al-foam-filled tubes, owing to its low tensile and bending strengths. In this study, all-Al foam-filled tubes consisting of ADC12 Al-Si-Cu die-cast aluminum alloy foam and a dense A1050 commercially pure Al tube(More)
It has been suggested that spiriferide morphologies have evolved to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions. Through a computational fluid dynamics approach, we examined how the spiriferide original form was optimized for a lotic condition, specifically addressing the functionalization of the Devonian spiriferide brachiopod Paraspirifer bownockeri to(More)
The sophisticated hydrodynamic performance achieved by the exoskeleton and the long, forked hypostome of the remopleuridid trilobite Hypodicranotus striatus was demonstrated using image-based modelling and computational fluid dynamics simulation techniques. To understand the function of the long, forked hypostome, we examined two types of exoskeletal(More)
A methodology to evaluate the effect of gas pores on fatigue life of aluminium die casts is proposed in terms of stress concentration factor. As observed in many fatigue tests, it is not always the case that the largest sized pore initiates fatigue crack. So we need to consider the interactions between the gas pores based on their configuration, shapes and(More)