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Predator-induced morphological defenses are a well-known form of phenotypic plasticity, but we continue to have a limited understanding of geographic variation in these responses and its genetic basis. Here we examine genetic variation and geographic differentiation in the inducible defenses of tadpoles (Rana pirica) in response to predatory salamander(More)
Eusocial aphids produce sterile individuals (“soldiers”) that specialize behaviorally and morphologically to protect their colony from predators, while production of soldiers can negatively affect colony growth because of reproductive allocation and opportunity cost. Hence, a cost-saving soldier production strategy is expected to be favored. Here, we(More)
In biological interactions, phenotypic change in interacting organisms induced by their interaction partners causes a substantial shift in some environmental factor of the partners, which may subsequently change their phenotype in response to that modified environmental factor. Few examples of such arms-race-like plastic responses, known as reciprocal(More)
Antagonistic phenotypic plasticity may strongly influence trait evolution in tightly interacting predator-prey pairs as well as the role that trait plasticity plays in community dynamics. Most work on trait plasticity has focused on single predator-prey pairs, but prey must often contend with multiple predators in natural environments. Hence, a better(More)
1. Predator-induced morphological defences are produced in response to an emergent predator regime. In natural systems, prey organisms usually experience temporal shifting of the composition of the predator assemblage and of the intensity of predation risk from each predator species. Although, a repetitive morphological change in response to a sequential(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands are involved in tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to chemotherapy. In the experiments described here using AGS gastric cancer cells, SN38 (the active metabolite of CPT-11) induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR within 5 min, and this was followed by the induction of transcripts(More)
Organisms often exhibit phenotypic plasticity in multiple traits in response to impending environmental change. Multiple traits phenotypic plasticity is complex syndrome brought on by causal relations in ecological and physiological context. Larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus exhibit inducible phenotypic plasticity of two traits, when at risk of(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that gastrin induces expression of CXC chemokines through activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) in gastric epithelial cells that express gastrin receptor. AIMS To clarify gastrin receptor mediated signals leading to activation of NFkappaB. METHODS MKGR26 cells were created by transfecting gastrin receptor cDNA(More)
Trophic cascades are often a potent force in ecological communities, but abiotic and biotic heterogeneity can diffuse their influence. For example, inducible defenses in many species create variation in prey edibility, and size-structured interactions, such as cannibalism, can shift predator diets away from heterospecific prey. Although both factors diffuse(More)