Osamu Arakawa

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Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been(More)
Vibrio sp. isolated from a xanthid crab, Atergatis floridus, was cultured, and tetrodotoxin (TTX) and anhydroTTX were indicated to be present in several fractions of the cell extract and the culture medium by reverse phase HPLC. The presence of the C9-base in alkaline hydrolyzates of these fractions was confirmed by GC-MS and UV spectrometry. These results(More)
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of(More)
Intra-tissue distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the skin of larva, juvenile, and adult Japanese newt Cynops pyrrhogaster was investigated by means of a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. In the investigation, TTX was localized at immature glands in juvenile, and at the granular cells composing of granular and mixed glands in adult(More)
1. The GABAA receptor-chloride channel complex has been shown to be modulated by a variety of chemicals. Scores of chemicals with diverse and unrelated structures augment the GABA-induced chloride current, while some other chemicals suppress the current. Certain heavy metals and a variety of polyvalent cations increase or decrease the current in a potent(More)
Marine pufferfish (family Tetraodontidae) are believed to accumulate tetrodotoxin (TTX) mainly in liver and ovary through the food chain by ingesting TTX-bearing organisms such as starfish, gastropods, crustacean, flatworms, ribbonworms, etc. Consequently, it is hypothesized that non-toxic pufferfish can be produced if they are cultured with TTX-free diets(More)
A clone of toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis sp. and six specimens of a parrotfish Scarus ovifrons were collected in October 1997 at Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Ostreopsis sp. was cultured in ESM medium for 16 days, and after rearing the cell pellet (about 4.0x10(5) cells) was extracted with 50% methanol, partitioned between an aqueous layer and 1-butanol(More)
Two species of freshwater puffer fish, Tetraodon cutcutia and Chelonodon patoca, collected from several locations in Bangladesh, showed lethal potency in mice ranging from 2.0 to 40.0 MU/g tissue as paralytic shellfish poison. In both species, toxicity of the skin was generally higher than the other tissues examined (muscle, liver and ovary). Water-soluble(More)
The effects of mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride on the rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in primary culture were studied by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. gamma-Aminobutyric acid-induced chloride currents were augmented by mercuric chloride in a potent and efficacious manner; at concentrations of 1 and 10 microM, the current amplitude was(More)
Poisoning after eating puffer fish containing highly lethal tetrodotoxin (TTX) is widespread in Asia. In 2008, naïve inland populations in Bangladesh were exposed to cheap puffer fish sold on markets. In three outbreaks, 141 patients with history of puffer fish consumption were hospitalized. Symptoms of poisoning included perioral paraesthesia, tingling(More)