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Working memory performance has been inconsistently reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several studies in ASD have found normal performance in digit span and poor performance in digit symbol task although these are closely related with working memory. It is assumed that poor performance in digit symbol could be explained by confirmatory behavior,(More)
OBJECTIVE Two tripeptides (Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro) that have inhibitory activities for angiotensin I-converting enzyme are produced in milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus. In this study we evaluated the effect and safety of powdered fermented milk with L. helveticus CM4 on subjects with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension. (More)
Both spatial working memory deficit and disorganization symptoms have been considered significant components of schizophrenic impairment involved with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships among spatial working memory, psychiatric symptoms including disorganization symptoms, and social(More)
In order to investigate the relationship between pleasant emotional experience and facial expression (i.e., laughter), mood before and after watching comic film clips, self-rated pleasant emotional experience for each film clip and electromyographic activities of facial muscles involved in laughter while watching film clips were measured for 25 patients(More)
Antipsychotic polypharmacy and excessive dosing still prevail worldwide in the treatment of schizophrenia, while their possible association with cognitive function has not well been examined. We examined whether the "non-standard" use of antipsychotics (defined as antipsychotic polypharmacy or dosage >1,000 mg/day of chlorpromazine equivalents) is(More)
BACKGROUND It is known that chronic fatigue is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. However, the relationship between autonomic function and mental fatigue caused by a prolonged mental load in healthy humans is still unclear. Thus, in order to clarify the mechanisms underlying mental fatigue, we examined the association between mental fatigue and(More)
Although visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is commonly used during speeded and unconscious memory processing in daily life, most neuroimaging studies on VSWM use tasks that impose motor restrictions onto the examinees to avoid movement-related artifacts. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), however, can measure cortical activation during(More)
Patients with schizophrenia are known to have deficits in facial affect recognition. Subjects were 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 normal subjects who were shown pairs of slides of laughing faces and asked to compare the intensity of laughter in the two slides. Eye movements were recorded using an infrared scleral reflection technique. Normal subjects(More)
BACKGROUND Fatigue is a predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis treatment. We hypothesized that multinutritional support would improve quality of life, fatigue symptoms, and potential quantitative measures including endocrine, immune and autonomic functions in patients with ESRD undergoing(More)
We examined the effects of citric acid and l-carnitine administration on physical fatigue. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study, 18 healthy volunteers were randomized to oral citric acid (2,700 mg/day), l-carnitine (1,000 mg/day), or placebo for 8 days. The fatigue-inducing physical task consisted of workload trials on a cycle(More)