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Working memory performance has been inconsistently reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several studies in ASD have found normal performance in digit span and poor performance in digit symbol task although these are closely related with working memory. It is assumed that poor performance in digit symbol could be explained by confirmatory behavior,(More)
OBJECTIVE Two tripeptides (Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro) that have inhibitory activities for angiotensin I-converting enzyme are produced in milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus. In this study we evaluated the effect and safety of powdered fermented milk with L. helveticus CM4 on subjects with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension. (More)
OBJECTIVE To confirm fatigue-related biochemical alterations, we measured various parameters just before and after relaxation and fatigue-inducing mental or physical sessions. METHODS Fifty-four healthy volunteers were randomized to perform relaxation and fatigue-inducing mental and physical sessions for 4 h in a double-blind, three-crossover design.(More)
BACKGROUND Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) has been found to exert antiallergic effects in animal experiments, but there is little information about its clinical effects in human patients with allergy. METHODS We performed a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of LcS in patients with allergic rhinitis(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the effects of administering two different candidate antifatigue substances, caffeine and D-ribose, on mental fatigue. METHODS In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design, 17 healthy volunteers were randomized to oral caffeine (200 mg/d), D-ribose (2000 mg/d), or placebo for 8 d. As fatigue-inducing mental(More)
We examined the effects of citric acid and l-carnitine administration on physical fatigue. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study, 18 healthy volunteers were randomized to oral citric acid (2,700 mg/day), l-carnitine (1,000 mg/day), or placebo for 8 days. The fatigue-inducing physical task consisted of workload trials on a cycle(More)
Although visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is commonly used during speeded and unconscious memory processing in daily life, most neuroimaging studies on VSWM use tasks that impose motor restrictions onto the examinees to avoid movement-related artifacts. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), however, can measure cortical activation during(More)
Antipsychotic polypharmacy and excessive dosing still prevail worldwide in the treatment of schizophrenia, while their possible association with cognitive function has not well been examined. We examined whether the "non-standard" use of antipsychotics (defined as antipsychotic polypharmacy or dosage >1,000 mg/day of chlorpromazine equivalents) is(More)
Studies in animals have suggested that lactic acid bacteria alleviate allergic diseases, however, little information is available on their clinical effect on allergy in humans. Thus, we examined the efficacy of orally administered Lactobacillus acidophilus strain L-92 (L-92) on perennial allergic rhinitis. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled(More)
The effects of drinking a fermented milk beverage that contains Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) at 40 billion bacterial cells/bottle for 4 weeks (probiotics, 1 bottle/day) on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools were evaluated. Thirty-four healthy adults who had soft(More)