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—The problem of communication in the sea has been considered as propagation of radio waves in a three-layered medium (air, sea, and ground). With the aid of the perturbation calculus, this paper analyzes the influence exerted onto the electromagnetic field of arrangements radiating a pure transverse electric field in the sea. The sea height varies… (More)

The electromagnetic field that an overhead infinitely line current produces at the surface of the earth can be expressed as inverse Fourier integrals over a horizontal wave number in terms of the Neumann and Struve functions. These functions have known mathematical properties, including the series expansions. The latter are utilized in this work to derive… (More)

A simple and explicit derivation is given for the source of the electromagnetic field. This source is taken to be a vertical magnetic dipole, in the upper surface layer, with an arbitrary time-varying moment. The method used for solution is essentially based on the application of two functional transforms. Starting with the wave equation of the magnetic… (More)

A simple and explicit derivation for the vertical electric dipole excited by a short-pulse current and located above a layered dielectric medium is derived in an analytical form using the Cagniard–de Hoop method. The fields are expressed as the convolution of the exciting current with the layered medium response. This response is obtained directly from the… (More)