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dUTPase is essential to keep uracil out of DNA. Crystal structures of substrate (dUTP and alpha,beta-imino-dUTP) and product complexes of wild type and mutant dUTPases were determined to reveal how an enzyme responsible for DNA integrity functions. A kinetic analysis of wild type and mutant dUTPases was performed to obtain relevant mechanistic information(More)
dUTPase is responsible for preventive DNA repair via exclusion of uracil. Developmental regulation of the Drosophila enzyme is suggested to be involved in thymine-less apoptosis. Here we show that in addition to conserved dUTPase sequence motifs, the gene of Drosophila enzyme codes for a unique Ala-Pro-rich segment. Kinetic and structural analyses of the(More)
Human dUTPase, essential for DNA integrity, is an important survival factor for cancer cells. We determined the crystal structure of the enzyme:alpha,beta-imino-dUTP:Mg complex and performed equilibrium binding experiments in solution. Ordering of the C-terminus upon the active site induces close juxtaposition of the incoming nucleophile attacker water(More)
BACKGROUND Genes present in only certain strains of a bacterial species can strongly affect cellular phenotypes and evolutionary potentials. One segment that seemed particularly rich in strain-specific genes was found by comparing the first two sequenced Helicobacter pylori genomes (strains 26695 and J99) and was named a "plasticity zone". PRINCIPAL(More)
The smallest known DNA transposases are those from the IS200/IS605 family. Here we show how the interplay of protein and DNA activates TnpA, the Helicobacter pylori IS608 transposase, for catalysis. First, transposon end binding causes a conformational change that aligns catalytically important protein residues within the active site. Subsequent precise(More)
dUTPases are essential to eliminate dUTP for DNA integrity and provide dUMP for thymidylate biosynthesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis apparently lacks any other thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, therefore dUTPase is a promising antituberculotic drug target. Crystal structure of the mycobacterial enzyme in complex with the isosteric substrate analog,(More)
Although a variety of non-LTR retrotransposons of the L1 superfamily have been found in plant genomes over recent decades, their diversity, distribution, and evolution have yet to be analyzed in depth. Here, we perform comprehensive comparative and evolutionary analyses of L1 retrotransposons from 29 genomes of land plants covering a wide range of taxa. We(More)
Bacterial insertion sequences (IS) play an important role in restructuring their host genomes. IS608, from Helicobacter pylori, belongs to a newly recognized and widespread IS group with a unique transposition mechanism. We have reconstituted the entire set of transposition cleavage and strand transfer reactions in vitro and find that, unlike any other(More)
Target site choice is a complex and poorly understood aspect of DNA transposition despite its importance in rational transposon-mediated gene delivery. Though most transposons choose target sites essentially randomly or with some slight sequence or structural preferences, insertion sequence IS608 from Helicobacter pylori, which transposes using(More)
Betaretroviruses encode dUTPase, an essential factor in DNA metabolism and repair, in the pro open reading frame located between gag and pol. Ribosomal frame-shifts during expression of retroviral proteins provide a unique possibility for covalent joining of nucleocapsid (NC) and dUTPase within Gag-Pro polyproteins. By developing an antibody against the(More)