Learn More
Weekly low dose methotrexate is an established treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but its use in elderly people has not been adequately examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate its safety in elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A retrospective review of the clinical records of rheumatoid arthritis patients over the age of 65 attending a(More)
The mitochondrial ribosome, which translates all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded proteins, should be tightly regulated pre- and post-transcriptionally. Recently, we found RNA-DNA differences (RDDs) at human mitochondrial 16S (large) rRNA position 947 that were indicative of post-transcriptional modification. Here, we show that these 16S rRNA RDDs result(More)
The generation of a current through interaction between bacteria and electrodes has been explored by various methods. We demonstrate the attachment of living bacteria through a surface displayed redox enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase II. The unnatural amino acid para-azido-L-phenylalanine was incorporated into a specific site of the displayed enzyme,(More)
Cell-free protein synthesis offers a facile and rapid method for synthesizing, monitoring, analyzing, and purifying proteins from a DNA template. At the same time, genetic code expansion methods are gaining attention due to their ability to site-specifically incorporate unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins via ribosomal translation. These systems are(More)
It is believed that connecting biomolecular computation elements in complex networks of communicating molecules may eventually lead to a biocomputer that can be used for diagnostics and/or the cure of physiological and genetic disorders. Here, a bioelectronic interface based on biomolecule-modified electrodes has been designed to bridge reversible enzymatic(More)
Bacterial systems are being extensively studied and modified for energy, sensors, and industrial chemistry; yet, their molecular scale structure and activity are poorly understood. Designing efficient bioengineered bacteria requires cellular understanding of enzyme expression and activity. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was modified to detect and analyze(More)
Proteins play a crucial role in all living organisms, with the 20 natural amino acids as their building blocks. Unnatural amino acids are synthetic derivatives of these natural building blocks. These amino acids have unique chemical or physical properties as a result of their specific side chain residues. Their incorporation into proteins through ribosomal(More)
Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the Eschrichia coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome(More)