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Seven Fanconi anemia–associated proteins (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG and FANCL) form a nuclear Fanconi anemia core complex that activates the monoubiquitination of FANCD2, targeting FANCD2 to BRCA1-containing nuclear foci. Cells from individuals with Fanconi anemia of complementation groups D1 and J (FA-D1 and FA-J) have normal FANCD2(More)
Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to develop heroin addiction by analyzing 1350 variants in 130 candidate genes. All subjects had Caucasian ancestry. The sample consisted of 412 former severe heroin addicts in(More)
Dynorphin peptides and the κ-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding properties of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol. We tested polymorphisms of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) for association with cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence. We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in the promoter region, exon 4 coding, and(More)
Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction and stress response. We have performed a(More)
Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations,(More)
The breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 has recently been identified as identical to the Fanconi anemia (FA) gene FANCD1. Here we expand the clinical implications of this discovery. Notably, we identified 6 children in 5 kindreds exhibiting the co-occurrence of BRCA2 mutations, FA, and early onset acute leukemia. Leukemia occurred at a median of 2.2(More)
Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformations, bone marrow failure, and the development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and other cancers. Recent clinicopathologic evidence has raised the possibility that an environmental factor such as human papillomavirus (HPV) may be involved in the pathogenesis of SCCs in(More)
A genome-wide association study was conducted using microarray technology to identify genes that may be associated with the vulnerability to develop heroin addiction, using DNA from 104 individual former severe heroin addicts (meeting Federal criteria for methadone maintenance) and 101 individual control subjects, all Caucasian. Using separate analyses for(More)
Methadone is a mu-opioid receptor agonist used for treating opiate dependence. The range of effective methadone doses is broad. Part of the large inter-individual variability in efficacy may be accounted for by genetic factors. Methadone is a substrate of the transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) 170 that is encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene. Thus, P-gp variants(More)
Adequate methadone dosing in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid addiction is critical for therapeutic success. One of the challenges in dose determination is the inter-individual variability in dose-response. Methadone metabolism is attributed primarily to cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6. The CYP2B6*6 allele [single(More)