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IMPORTANCE Health care-associated infections (HAIs) account for a large proportion of the harms caused by health care and are associated with high costs. Better evaluation of the costs of these infections could help providers and payers to justify investing in prevention. OBJECTIVE To estimate costs associated with the most significant and targetable(More)
The major objective of the present study was to identify the relationship of physiologial parameters of the photosynthetic system with the elemental content of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. Thalli of R. lacera were collected in an unpolluted site and transplanted in a national park and an industrial region in Israel for 8 mo. Analyses of(More)
In Israel, updating of the National List of Health Services is performed on a yearly basis by means of a systematic and structured mechanism for almost a decade. The existence of such a mechanism is vital for keeping medicine up to date, since many innovative and breakthrough medical technologies continuously and frequently evolve. The 2006 update is unique(More)
A counterfeit drug is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeit drugs can be found worldwide, both in deveLoped and developing countries, and their dissemination is a major threat to public health and safety, and has major economic effects on the consumers, the pharmaceutical industry, and(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to describe the history and present situation with health technology assessment (HTA) in Israel. METHODS The method used in this study was a historical analysis based mainly on the knowledge of the authors, but supplemented by the published literature. RESULTS HTA originated in Israel as a centralized function(More)
Ramalina maciformis and Ramalina lacera were exposed to different solutions and UV-B to seek for alterations in the PSII photosynthetic quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)), in response to chemicals and radiation. For R. maciformis, significant alterations of the F(v)/F(m) ratio occurred only in response to different bisulphite solutions. The F(v)/F(m) ratio decreased(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to describe the design and validation of a newly developed brief, treatment-focused scale for use with type 1 and type 2-diabetes, exploring patient-perceived difficulties that are associated with treatment. METHODS The content of the construct was derived from consultation with experts, from existing instruments(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical evidence points to patient-perceived difficulties and compliance problems in implementing early insulin therapy. Therefore, individual treatment aims are necessary to optimize diabetes therapy, as currently acknowledged by the new ADA/EASD guidelines. Better characterization of patient-perceived difficulties in the implementation of(More)
Medical research is a broad discipline in which clinical trials bridge between research and practice. During the 20th century, modern concerns regarding the ethical and clinical aspects of clinical trials led to the development of international standards and regulatory procedures that guide research in clinical trials. The rapid development of(More)
The present study used the epilithic fruticose lichen Ramalina maciformis to investigate the occurrence of mineral elements, including heavy metals, at a distance of up to 50 km from the industrial region in Ramat Hovav in the Negev Desert, Israel. The major objective of this study was an analytical comparison of elemental content and physiological(More)