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Gaucher's disease, a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GCD), is currently treated by enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant GCD (Cerezyme) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. As complex glycans in mammalian cells do not terminate in mannose residues, which are essential for the(More)
The design of new enzymes for reactions not catalysed by naturally occurring biocatalysts is a challenge for protein engineering and is a critical test of our understanding of enzyme catalysis. Here we describe the computational design of eight enzymes that use two different catalytic motifs to catalyse the Kemp elimination-a model reaction for proton(More)
We have analyzed structure-sequence relationships in 32 families of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding proteins, to prepare for genomic-scale analyses of this family. Four different FAD-family folds were identified, each containing at least two or more protein families. Three of these families, exemplified by glutathione reductase (GR), ferredoxin(More)
NOTE: In the version of this Review initially published, an author (B. Martin Hallberg) was left off of the author list. This information has been added to the HTML and PDF versions of the Review.In selecting a method to produce a recombinant protein, a researcher is faced with a bewildering array of choices as to where to start. To facilitate(More)
Protein-protein interactions are essential for life. Yet, our understanding of the general principles governing binding is not complete. In the present study, we show that the interface between proteins is built in a modular fashion; each module is comprised of a number of closely interacting residues, with few interactions between the modules. The(More)
The high-resolution structure of halophilic malate dehydrogenase (hMDH) from the archaebacterium Haloarcula marismortui was determined by x-ray crystallography. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of hMDH and its nonhalophilic congeners reveals structural features that may promote the stability of hMDH at high salt concentrations. These features(More)
The Cyt family of proteins consists of delta-endotoxins expressed during sporulation of several subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis. Its members possess insecticidal, hemolytic, and cytolytic activities through pore formation and attract attention due to their potential use as vehicles for targeted membrane destruction. The delta-endotoxins of subsp.(More)
Understanding enzyme catalysis through the analysis of natural enzymes is a daunting challenge-their active sites are complex and combine numerous interactions and catalytic forces that are finely coordinated. Study of more rudimentary (wo)man-made enzymes provides a unique opportunity for better understanding of enzymatic catalysis. KE07, a computationally(More)
d-Lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDH) of Escherichia coli is a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme involved in electron transfer, located on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane. d-LDH catalyzes the oxidation of d-lactate to pyruvate, which is coupled to transmembrane transport of amino acids and sugars. Here we describe the crystal structure at 1.9 A(More)
Antizyme inhibitor (AzI) regulates cellular polyamine homeostasis by binding to the polyamine-induced protein, Antizyme (Az), with greater affinity than ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). AzI is highly homologous to ODC but is not enzymatically active. In order to understand these specific characteristics of AzI and its differences from ODC, we determined the(More)