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Most MEMS devices are currently based on silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties which makes it difficult to produce high performance Si based MEMS devices that could work reliably, particularly in harsh environments; diamond, as a superhard material with high mechanical(More)
We report the observation of periodic 180 degrees stripe domains below the ferroelectric transition in thin films. Epitaxial PbTiO3 films of thickness d=1.6 to 42 nm on SrTiO3 substrates were studied using x-ray scattering. Upon cooling below T(C), satellites appeared around Bragg peaks indicating the presence of 180 degrees stripe domains of period(More)
We have characterized mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond UNCD thin films grown using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition HFCVD technique at 680 °C, significantly lower than the conventional growth temperature of 800 °C. The films have 4.3% sp2 content in the near-surface region as revealed by near edge x-ray absorption fine(More)
Understanding the suppression of ferroelectricity in perovskite thin films is a fundamental issue that has remained unresolved for decades. We report a synchrotron x-ray study of lead titanate as a function of temperature and film thickness for films as thin as a single unit cell. At room temperature, the ferroelectric phase is stable for thicknesses down(More)
Diamond, because of its electrical and chemical properties, may be a suitable material for integrated sensing and signal processing. But methods to control chemical or biological modifications on diamond surfaces have not been established. Here, we show that nanocrystalline diamond thin-films covalently modified with DNA oligonucleotides provide an(More)
Dynamics of domain interfaces in a broad range of functional thin-film materials is an area of great current interest. In ferroelectric thin films, a significantly enhanced piezoelectric response should be observed if non-180 degrees domain walls were to switch under electric field excitation. However, in continuous thin films they are clamped by the(More)
A hard, low-wear probe for contact-mode writing techniques, such as dip-pen nanolithography (DPN), was fabricated using ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Molding within anisotropically etched and oxidized pyramidal pits in silicon was used to obtain diamond tips with radii down to 30 nm through growth of UNCD films followed by selective etching of the(More)
In this work, ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films were evaluated for use as hermetic and bioinert coatings for a retinal microchip. These films were deposited on highly conductive Si substrates at different temperatures (from 400 to 800 degrees C), using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with argon-rich Ar/CH4 gas mixtures and(More)
Surfaces of materials that promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and growth are critical for new generation of implantable biomedical devices. These films should be able to coat complex geometrical shapes very conformally, with smooth surfaces to produce hermetic bioinert protective coatings, or to provide surfaces for cell grafting through appropriate(More)
We present in situ x-ray scattering measurements of the surface structures of PbTiO(3) (001) in equilibrium with PbO vapor. At 875 to 1025 K, a reconstruction having c(2x2) symmetry is present under most conditions, while a 1 x 6 reconstruction occurs under PbO-poor conditions. The atomic structure of the c(2x2) phase is found to consist of a single layer(More)