Orin S. Packer

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The distribution of photoreceptors is known for only one complete human retina and for the cardinal meridians only in the macaque monkey retina. Cones can be mapped in computer-reconstructed whole mounts of human and monkey retina. A 2.9-fold range in maximum cone density in the foveas of young adult human eyes may contribute to individual differences in(More)
In non-mammalian vertebrates, retinal bipolar cells show center-surround receptive field organization. In mammals, recordings from bipolar cells are rare and have not revealed a clear surround. Here we report center-surround receptive fields of identified cone bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina. In the peripheral retina, cone bipolar cell nuclei(More)
How is the trichromatic cone mosaic of Old World primates sampled by retinal circuits to create wavelength opponency? Red-green (L versus M cone) opponency appears to be mediated largely by the segregation of L versus M cone signals to the centre versus the surround of the midget ganglion cell receptive field, implying a complex cone type-specific wiring,(More)
In spite of the crucial role retinal photoreceptors play in mapping optical images into a pattern of neural excitation, there are no complete studies of photoreceptor topography in any primate retina. We have measured the spatial density and inner segment areas of cones and rods across the whole mounted retinas of three adult pigtail macaques (Macaca(More)
The distinctive parasol ganglion cell of the primate retina transmits a transient, spectrally nonopponent signal to the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. Parasol cells show well-recognized parallels with the alpha-Y cell of other mammals, yet two key alpha-Y cell properties, a collateral projection to the superior colliculus and(More)
In the primate retina the small bistratified, "blue-yellow" color-opponent ganglion cell receives parallel ON-depolarizing and OFF-hyperpolarizing inputs from short (S)-wavelength sensitive and combined long (L)- and middle (M)-wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors, respectively. However, the synaptic pathways that create S versus LM cone-opponent(More)
Although the center-surround receptive field is a fundamental property of retinal ganglion cells, the circuitry that mediates surround inhibition remains controversial. We examined the contribution of horizontal cells and amacrine cells to the surround of parasol ganglion cells of macaque and baboon retina by measuring receptive field structure before and(More)
In the primate visual system approximately 20 morphologically distinct pathways originate from retinal ganglion cells and project in parallel to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and/or the superior colliculus. Understanding of the properties of these pathways and the significance of such extreme early pathway diversity for later visual processing is(More)
Redistributions of monkey cones and rods during the first year after birth include a fivefold increase in peak foveal cone density from 43,000 to 210,000 cones/mm2, a decrease in the diameter of the rod-sparse area, and a two- to threefold decrease in peripheral photoreceptor density. Two weeks before birth, higher cone density is already apparent in the(More)
We introduce a new technique for classifying many photoreceptors simultaneously in fresh, excised primate retina on the basis of their absorptance spectra. Primate retina is removed from the pigment epithelium and illuminated under a microscope from the same direction as in the intact eye. To facilitate the guiding of light into the receptor outer segments,(More)