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Normal adult subjects (n = 184) consumed a high-protein or high-carbohydrate meal. Two hours later their mood and performance were tested. The effects of meal composition on mood were different for men and women, and for older and younger subjects. Females, but not males, reported greater sleepiness after a carbohydrate as opposed to a protein meal. Male(More)
The reduction in breast cancer risk attributed to early-age pregnancy is mediated in part by changes in the mammary epithelium. Here, we address the role of the mammary stroma in this protection. Utilizing tumor cells capable of transitioning from indolent to proliferative or invasive states, we demonstrate that mammary extracellular matrix (ECM) from(More)
Human newborns (1-4 days old) were offered two fluids differing in taste for 3 min each. The volumes ingested were measured. Infants offered water and bitter or sour solutions did not ingest them differentially, which corroborated earlier observations with weaker solutions. A sucrose solution was used to raise baseline ingestion above that of water. Infants(More)
The purpose of this experiment was to explore the complex relationship between fluid consumption and consumption factors (thirst, voluntary dehydration, water alliesthesia, palatability, work-rest cycle) during a simulated 14.5-km desert walk (treadmill, 1.34 m X s-1, 5% grade, 40 degrees C dry bulb/26 degrees C wet bulb, and wind speed of approximately 1.2(More)
The mammary gland is an excellent model system to study the interplay between stroma and epithelial cells because of the gland’s unique postnatal development and its distinct functional states. This review focuses on the contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to stromal-epithelial interactions in the mammary gland. We describe how ECM physical(More)
The relationship among changes in thirst sensations, blood variables, and differential fluid intake in hypohydrated humans was examined. Seven subjects were hypohydrated by 0%, 3%, 5%, and 7% of their body weight on four separate trials which were systematically randomized between subjects. Hypohydration levels were achieved with a regimen of restricted(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the magnitude of sodium reduction that can be made without significantly changing the perception of saltiness and acceptability of a broad range of common food items. DESIGN The investigation was carried out in two phases. Military and civilian volunteers (N = 190 in study 1; N = 380 in study 2) from the US Army Natick Research,(More)