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BACKGROUND & AIMS The liver is a major site of drug metabolism and elimination and as such is susceptible to drug toxicity. Drug induced liver injury is a leading cause of acute liver injury, of which acetaminophen (APAP) is the most frequent causative agent. APAP toxicity is initiated by its toxic metabolite NAPQI. However, downstream mechanisms underlying(More)
The liver has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury; yet, the role of macrophages (MF) in this process remains controversial mainly due to difficulties in distinguishing between different MF subsets. In this study, we used a murine model of acute liver injury induced by overdose of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) and defined three distinct MF(More)
TLRs serve important immune and nonimmune functions in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Proinflammatory Th1 cytokines have been shown to promote TLR expression and function in IECs, but the effect of key Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) on TLR signaling in IECs has not been elucidated so far. We stimulated human model IECs with Th2 cytokines and(More)
As the field of minimally invasive surgery continues to develop, surgeons are confronted with the challenge of performing conventional laparoscopic surgeries through fewer incisions while maintaining the same degree of safety and surgical efficiency. Most of these methods involve elimination of the ports previously designated for retraction. As a result,(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Clinical and experimental data suggest an important role for intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and probiotics have been shown to ameliorate pouchitis. We evaluated the effect of different preparations of probiotic bacteria on experimental colitis in rats. METHODS Rats were treated daily(More)
Viral reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers undergoing immunosuppressive therapy is well documented. To evaluate the role of lamivudine prophylaxis in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers treated with immunosuppression for nonhepatic disorders, we reviewed our experience between 1997 and 2000 at Hadassah University Hospital (Jerusalem,(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adoptive transfer of regulatory natural killer T (NKT) lymphocytes on the metabolic disorder in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which feature depletion and defective function of NKT and CD4 lymphocytes. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were subjected to transplantation of 1 x 10(6) of either ob/ob or(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that recognize conserved molecular motifs on microorganisms. Ligand binding to TLRs initiates signaling cascades that activate NF-kappaB, MAPK, and interferon response factors. These culminate in cellular responses including activation of antimicrobial killing mechanisms, production of(More)
BACKGROUND The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular site for protein folding. ER stress occurs when protein folding capacity is exceeded. This stress induces a cyto-protective signaling cascades termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) aimed at restoring homeostasis. While acute ER stress is lethal, chronic sub-lethal ER stress causes cells to adapt(More)
Hepatic hydrothorax is defined as the accumulation of significant pleural effusion in a cirrhotic patient without primary pulmonary or cardiac disease. Hydrothorax is uncommon occurring in up to 4-6% of all patients with cirrhosis and up to 10% in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Although ascites is usually present, hydrothorax can occur in the(More)