The non-crystallographic phase problem arises in numerous scientific and technological fields. An important application is coherent diffractive imaging. Recent advances in X-ray free-electron lasers allow capturing of the diffraction pattern from a single nanoparticle before it disintegrates, in so-called 'diffraction before destruction' experiments.… (More)
We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally non-broadening optical beams that propagate along any arbitrarily-chosen convex trajectory in space. We present a general method to construct these beams and explore their universal properties using catastrophe theory.
Reconstruction of signals from measurements of their spectral intensities, also known as the phase retrieval problem, is of fundamental importance in many scientific fields. In this paper we present a novel framework, denoted as vectorial phase retrieval, for reconstruction of pairs of signals from spectral intensity measurements of the two signals and of… (More)
The waveforms of attosecond pulses produced by high-harmonic generation carry information on the electronic structure and dynamics in atomic and molecular systems. Current methods for the temporal characterization of such pulses have limited sensitivity and impose significant experimental complexity. We propose a new linear and all-optical method inspired… (More)
Phase measurement is a long-standing challenge in a wide range of applications, from X-ray imaging to astrophysics and spectroscopy. While in some scenarios the phase is resolved by an interferometric measurement, in others it is reconstructed via numerical optimization, based on some a-priori knowledge about the signal. The latter commonly use iterative… (More)
We experimentally demonstrate first-order (fold) and second-order (cusp) catastrophes in the density of an atomic cloud reflected from an optical barrier in the presence of gravity and show their corresponding universal asymptotic behavior. These catastrophes, arising from classical dynamics, enable robust, field-free refocusing of an expanding atomic cloud… (More)
A linear self-referenced technique for temporal characterization of ultraweak pulse trains is presented. Shot-noise limited time-resolved single photon detection enables temporal resolution down to 10fs for pulse trains with ~ 1 photon per pulse.