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The absence of immune defects that occurs in the syndrome of long-term nonprogressive (LTNP) HIV infection offers insights into the pathophysiology of HIV-induced immune disease. The (H[F/S]RIG)(2) domain of viral protein R (Vpr) induces apoptosis and may contribute to HIV-induced T cell depletion. We demonstrate a higher frequency of R77Q Vpr mutations in(More)
BACKGROUND In a small percentage of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), there is no progression of disease and CD4+ T-cell counts remain stable for many years. Studies of the histopathological, virologic, and immunologic characteristics of these persons may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to HIV(More)
BACKGROUND CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell entry cofactor for macrophage-tropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Recently, an inactive CCR5 allele (designated here as CCR5-2) was identified that confers resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygotes and slows the rate of progression to AIDS in heterozygotes. The reports conflict on(More)
We show how bright, tabletop, fully coherent hard X-ray beams can be generated through nonlinear upconversion of femtosecond laser light. By driving the high-order harmonic generation process using longer-wavelength midinfrared light, we show that, in theory, fully phase-matched frequency upconversion can extend into the hard X-ray region of the spectrum.(More)
This review article provides a contemporary overview of phase retrieval in optical imaging, linking the relevant optical physics to the signal processing methods and algorithms. Our goal is to describe the current state of the art in this area, identify challenges, and suggest future directions and areas where signal processing methods can have a large(More)
The antigenic polymorphism of HIV-1 is a major obstacle in developing an effective vaccine. Accordingly, we screened random peptide libraries (RPLs) displayed on phage with antibodies from HIV-infected individuals and identified an array of HIV-specific epitopes that behave as antigenic mimics of conformational epitopes of gp120 and gp41 proteins. We report(More)
The role of neutralizing antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is poorly understood and was assessed by evaluating responses at different stages of infection. Undiluted sera from long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) had broad neutralizing antibodies against heterologous primary isolates and were more likely to neutralize the(More)
The pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease are multifactorial and multi-phasic. The common denominator of the disease is the profound immunosuppression that occurs in the vast majority of infected patients. Studies in lymphoid tissues in HIV disease have provided considerable insight into the pathogenic processes involved from the earliest phases of infection(More)
We present the first experimental demonstration of lensless diffractive imaging using coherent soft x rays generated by a tabletop soft-x-ray source. A 29 nm high harmonic beam illuminates an object, and the subsequent diffraction is collected on an x-ray CCD camera. High dynamic range diffraction patterns are obtained by taking multiple exposures while(More)
We study various families of two-dimensional discrete or lattice solitons, and show that they are possible only when their power level exceeds a critical threshold. In addition, we show that gap-lattice solitons exist only when the lattice possesses a complete 2D band gap. Our results suggest that these conditions are universally valid, irrespective of the(More)