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During reaching movements, the brain's internal models map desired limb motion into predicted forces. When the forces in the task change, these models adapt. Adaptation is guided by generalization: errors in one movement influence prediction in other types of movement. If the mapping is accomplished with population coding, combining basis elements that(More)
Many voluntary movements involve coordination between the limbs. However, there have been very few attempts to study the neuronal mechanisms that mediate this coordination. Here we have studied the activity of cortical neurons while monkeys performed tasks that required coordination between the two arms. We found that most neurons in the primary motor(More)
Adaptation is sometimes viewed as a process in which the nervous system learns to predict and cancel effects of a novel environment, returning movements to near baseline (unperturbed) conditions. An alternate view is that cancellation is not the goal of adaptation. Rather, the goal is to maximize performance in that environment. If performance criteria are(More)
Adaptability of reaching movements depends on a computation in the brain that transforms sensory cues, such as those that indicate the position and velocity of the arm, into motor commands. Theoretical consideration shows that the encoding properties of neural elements implementing this transformation dictate how errors should generalize from one limb(More)
Although it is widely agreed that the cerebellum is necessary for learning and consolidation of new motor tasks, it is not known whether adaptation to kinematic and dynamic errors is processed by the same cerebellar areas or whether different parts play a decisive role. We investigated arm movements in a visuomotor (VM) rotation and a force field (FF)(More)
An internal model of the dynamics of a tool or an object is part of the motor memory acquired when learning to use the tool or to manipulate the object. Changes in synaptic efficacy may underlie acquisition and storage of memories. Here we studied the effect of pharmacological agents that interfere with synaptic plasticity on acquisition of new motor(More)
Studies with patients and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigations have demonstrated that the cerebellum plays an essential role in adaptation to visuomotor rotation and force field perturbation. To identify cerebellar structures involved in the two tasks, we studied 19 patients with focal lesions after cerebellar infarction. Focal lesions were(More)
A recent controversy has emerged concerning the existence of long pauses, presumably reflecting bistability of membrane potential, in the cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) of awake animals. It is generally agreed that in the anesthetized animals and in vitro, these cells switch between two stable membrane potential states: a depolarized state (the 'up-state')(More)
Single units were recorded from the primary motor (MI) and supplementary motor (SMA) areas of Rhesus monkeys performing one-arm (unimanual) and two-arm (bimanual) proximal reaching tasks. During execution of the bimanual movements, the task related activity of about one-half the neurons in each area (MI: 129/232, SMA: 107/206) differed from the activity(More)
Previous studies have shown that activity of neuronal populations in the primary motor cortex (MI), processed by the population vector method, faithfully predicts upcoming movements. In our previous studies we found that single neurons responded differently during movements of one arm vs. combined movements of the two arms. It was, therefore, not clear(More)