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During reaching movements, the brain's internal models map desired limb motion into predicted forces. When the forces in the task change, these models adapt. Adaptation is guided by generalization: errors in one movement influence prediction in other types of movement. If the mapping is accomplished with population coding, combining basis elements that(More)
Adaptability of reaching movements depends on a computation in the brain that transforms sensory cues, such as those that indicate the position and velocity of the arm, into motor commands. Theoretical consideration shows that the encoding properties of neural elements implementing this transformation dictate how errors should generalize from one limb(More)
An internal model of the dynamics of a tool or an object is part of the motor memory acquired when learning to use the tool or to manipulate the object. Changes in synaptic efficacy may underlie acquisition and storage of memories. Here we studied the effect of pharmacological agents that interfere with synaptic plasticity on acquisition of new motor(More)
Studies with patients and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigations have demonstrated that the cerebellum plays an essential role in adaptation to visuomotor rotation and force field perturbation. To identify cerebellar structures involved in the two tasks, we studied 19 patients with focal lesions after cerebellar infarction. Focal lesions were(More)
Accurate performance of reaching movements depends on adaptable neural circuitry that learns to predict forces and compensate for limb dynamics. In earlier experiments, we quantified generalization from training at one arm position to another position. The generalization patterns suggested that neural elements learning to predict forces coded a limb's state(More)
A recent controversy has emerged concerning the existence of long pauses, presumably reflecting bistability of membrane potential, in the cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) of awake animals. It is generally agreed that in the anesthetized animals and in vitro, these cells switch between two stable membrane potential states: a depolarized state (the 'up-state')(More)
Saccade adaptation is a cerebellar-mediated type of motor learning in which the oculomotor system is exposed to repetitive errors. Different types of saccade adaptations are thought to involve distinct underlying cerebellar mechanisms. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces changes in neuronal excitability in a polarity-specific manner and(More)
Adaptation is sometimes viewed as a process in which the nervous system learns to predict and cancel effects of a novel environment, returning movements to near baseline (unperturbed) conditions. An alternate view is that cancellation is not the goal of adaptation. Rather, the goal is to maximize performance in that environment. If performance criteria are(More)
Theoretical motor control predicts that because of delays in sensorimotor pathways, a neural system should exist in the brain that uses efferent copy of commands to the arm, sensory feedback, and an internal model of the dynamics of the arm to predict the future state of the hand (i.e., a forward model). We tested this theory under the hypothesis that(More)
Children with autism exhibit a host of motor disorders including poor coordination, poor tool use and delayed learning of complex motor skills like riding a tricycle. Theory suggests that one of the crucial steps in motor learning is the ability to form internal models: to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands and learn from errors to improve(More)