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Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder without effective treatment. It is generally sporadic with unknown etiology. However, genetic studies of rare familial forms have led to the identification of mutations in several genes, which are linked to typical Parkinson's disease or parkinsonian disorders. The pathogenesis of(More)
Four toluene abusers had evidence of severe multifocal central nervous system damage. Impairment of cognitive, cerebellar, brainstem, auditory, and pyramidal tract function, as well as CT evidence of cerebral cortical, cerebellar, and brainstem atrophy, have been noted. In addition, we found opsoclonus, ocular flutter, and ocular dysmetria. All three(More)
Ectopic origin of the ophthalmic artery from the middle meningeal artery was found in a patient with amaurosis fugax. The origin of the external carotid artery on the symptomatic side was markedly stenotic. The patient's symptoms disappeared after external carotid endarterectomy. We review the ectopic sites of the ophthalmic artery and discuss atheromatous(More)
BACKGROUND Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common symptom in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) representing a major cause of disability and falls. Although the pathophysiology of FOG remains poorly understood, nondopaminergic pathways have been implicated. Treatment studies of levodopa and selegiline have shown limited benefit for FOG. Limited(More)
Abnormal visual sensations are the most common and characteristic features of migraine. In some patients, they are the only features. The major visual disturbance associated with migraine is scotoma; less common are distortions in size, shape, and color of viewed objects; photophobia; and diplopia and polyopia. Sudden loss of vision occurs in retinal(More)
  • Onur Melen
  • Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North…
  • 1987
The pituitary adenomas are one of the more common and prognostically favorable intracranial tumors. Because of their anatomic proximity to the anterior visual pathways, these tumors should be suspected in every patient with unexplained visual loss. The value of meticulous neuro-ophthalmic examination, especially formal perimetry, cannot be overemphasized.(More)