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This study examines the modulation of functional cerebral asymmetries by gonadal hormones in three distinct groups. Young, normally cycling women performed a prototypical left (lexical decision) and two prototypical right-hemispheric tasks (figural comparison and face discrimination) during the low steroid menses and the high steroid midluteal phase. Saliva(More)
The avian caudolateral neostriatum (NCL) was first identified on the basis of its dense dopaminergic innervation. This fact and data from lesion studies have led to the notion that NCL might be the avian equivalent of prefrontal cortex (PFC). A key feature of the PFC is the ability to integrate information from all modalities needed for the generation of(More)
We believe that names have a powerful influence on the experiments we do and the way in which we think. For this reason, and in the light of new evidence about the function and evolution of the vertebrate brain, an international consortium of neuroscientists has reconsidered the traditional, 100-year-old terminology that is used to describe the avian(More)
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
The aim of this study was (a) to show that different measures of spatial cognition are modulated by the menstrual cycle and (b) to analyze which steroid is responsible for these cognitive alterations. The authors collected blood samples in 3-day intervals over 6 weeks from 12 young women with a regular menstrual cycle to analyze concentrations of estradiol,(More)
The dopaminergic modulation of neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for working memory. Delay-activity in the PFC in working memory tasks persists even if interfering stimuli intervene between the presentation of the sample and the target stimulus. Here, the hypothesis is put forward that the functional role of dopamine in working(More)
Little is known about the hormonal effects of puberty on the anatomy of the developing human brain. In a voxel-based morphometry study, sex-related differences in gray matter (GM) volume were examined in 46 subjects aged 8-15 years. Males had larger GM volumes in the left amygdala, whereas females had larger right striatal and bilateral hippocampal GM(More)
This study aims at answering two basic questions regarding the mechanisms with which hormones modulate functional cerebral asymmetries. Which steroids or gonadotropins fluctuating during the menstrual cycle affect perceptual asymmetries? Can these effects be demonstrated in a cross-sectional (follicular and midluteal cycle phases analyzed) and a(More)
The lateral geniculate complex (GL) of pigeons was investigated with respect to its immunohistochemical characteristics, retinal afferents, and the putative transmitters/modulators of its neurons. The distributions of serotonin-, choline acetyltransferase-, glutamic acid decarboxylase-, tyrosine hydroxylase-, neuropeptide Y- (NPY), substance P- (SP),(More)
Pigeons are visually lateralized with a dominance of the right eye. Due to the virtually complete decussation of the optic nerves in birds, a right eye superiority probably depends on a left brain hemisphere dominance. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether morphological asymmetries in the cross-sectional area of perikarya can be found within(More)