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This study examines the modulation of functional cerebral asymmetries by gonadal hormones in three distinct groups. Young, normally cycling women performed a prototypical left (lexical decision) and two prototypical right-hemispheric tasks (figural comparison and face discrimination) during the low steroid menses and the high steroid midluteal phase. Saliva(More)
The avian caudolateral neostriatum (NCL) was first identified on the basis of its dense dopaminergic innervation. This fact and data from lesion studies have led to the notion that NCL might be the avian equivalent of prefrontal cortex (PFC). A key feature of the PFC is the ability to integrate information from all modalities needed for the generation of(More)
Little is known about the hormonal effects of puberty on the anatomy of the developing human brain. In a voxel-based morphometry study, sex-related differences in gray matter (GM) volume were examined in 46 subjects aged 8-15 years. Males had larger GM volumes in the left amygdala, whereas females had larger right striatal and bilateral hippocampal GM(More)
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
We believe that names have a powerful influence on the experiments we do and the way in which we think. For this reason, and in the light of new evidence about the function and evolution of the vertebrate brain, an international consortium of neuroscientists has reconsidered the traditional, 100-year-old terminology that is used to describe the avian(More)
The dopaminergic modulation of neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for working memory. Delay-activity in the PFC in working memory tasks persists even if interfering stimuli intervene between the presentation of the sample and the target stimulus. Here, the hypothesis is put forward that the functional role of dopamine in working(More)
Several studies suggest that the neostriatum caudolaterale (NCL) of birds is equivalent to the mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC). The aim of the present study was to analyze the functional importance of the NCL and the n. dorsolateralis posterior thalami (DLP), the main thalamic afferent structure of the NCL, in tasks which are generally used to assess(More)
Cerebral asymmetries represent an important principle of the organization of nervous systems. The asymmetries of the avian visual system, with their partly complementary domains in the left and the right hemisphere, offer an excellent window for the lateralized learning and cognitive processes. These behavioural experiments are accompanied by biochemical,(More)
Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception,(More)
Both mammals and birds can flexibly organize their behavior over time. In mammals, the mental operations generating this ability are called executive functions and are associated with the prefrontal cortex. The corresponding structure in birds is the nidopallium caudolaterale. Anatomical, neurochemical, electrophysiological and behavioral studies show these(More)