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This study aims at answering two basic questions regarding the mechanisms with which hormones modulate functional cerebral asymmetries. Which steroids or gonadotropins fluctuating during the menstrual cycle affect perceptual asymmetries? Can these effects be demonstrated in a cross-sectional (follicular and midluteal cycle phases analyzed) and a(More)
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
We believe that names have a powerful influence on the experiments we do and the way in which we think. For this reason, and in the light of new evidence about the function and evolution of the vertebrate brain, an international consortium of neuroscientists has reconsidered the traditional, 100-year-old terminology that is used to describe the avian(More)
Little is known about the hormonal effects of puberty on the anatomy of the developing human brain. In a voxel-based morphometry study, sex-related differences in gray matter (GM) volume were examined in 46 subjects aged 8-15 years. Males had larger GM volumes in the left amygdala, whereas females had larger right striatal and bilateral hippocampal GM(More)
Working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate currently relevant information, is required for most cognitive faculties. In humans and other mammals, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides the underlying neural network for these processes. Within the PFC, working memory neurons display sustained elevated activity while holding active an(More)
Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception,(More)
Cellular studies have focused on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) to understand requirements for persistent changes in synaptic connections. Whereas LTP is induced through high-frequency intermittent stimulation, low-frequency stimulation evokes LTD. Because of the ubiquitous efficacy of these protocols, they are considered(More)
Two correlates of outcome processing in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) have been proposed in the literature: One hypothesis suggests that the lateral/medial division relates to representation of outcome valence (negative vs. positive), and the other suggests that the medial OFC maintains steady stimulus-outcome associations, whereas the lateral OFC(More)
The optic tectum of vertebrates is an essential relay station for visuomotor behavior and is characterized by a set of connections that comprises topographically ordered input from the eyes and an output that reaches premotor hindbrain regions. In the avian tectofugal system, different ascending cell classes have recently been identified based on their(More)