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Knowing the likelihood of failure of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could indicate the best choice between NPPV and endotracheal intubation instituted earlier. For this purpose, two risk charts were designed (at admission and after 2 h of NPPV) that included all(More)
Cigarette smoking induces an inflammatory response in the airways that may play a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Noninvasive markers of inflammation may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the airways of smokers as well as in the screening of subjects at high risk of developing airway obstruction. The aim of the(More)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular complications in OSA patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness(More)
BACKGROUND While the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome among children with Down syndrome is reported to vary from 30 to 50%, the nocturnal respiratory patterns of adults with Down syndrome is not well known. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep-related breathing disorders in a sample of adults with Down syndrome. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperoxia increases oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and may therefore enhance inflammation in the lungs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short term supplementary oxygen (28%) increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the airways by measuring 8-isoprostane and interleukin 6 (IL-6)(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which rapidly leads to chronic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Currently, forced vital capacity (FVC) < 50% is considered as physiologic marker for admitting patients to Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) intervention, although it has been(More)
Forced vital capacity (FVC) shows limitations in detecting respiratory failure in the early phase of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In fact, mild-to-moderate respiratory muscle weakness may be present even when FVC is normal, and ALS patients with bulbar involvement might not be able to perform correctly the spirometry test. Sniff nasal inspiratory(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Nitric Oxide (NO) are crucial mediators for establishing pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We tested the hypothesis that their imbalance might also occur in COPD patients with PAH. METHODS The aims of the study were to measure exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and circulating levels of ET-1, as well as exhaled NO (FENO)(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that rapidly involves the respiratory system, leading to persistent respiratory insufficiency. Neuromuscular respiratory weakness is also responsible for sleep disordered breathing (SDB), which occurs at an early stage of ALS. Maximal sniff nasal-inspiratory pressure (SNIP) is a sensitive(More)
We read with great interest the recent article in CHEST (December 2012) by Villeneuve et al 1 entitled " Mild Cognitive Impairment in Moderate to Severe COPD: A Preliminary Study. " In their article, Villeneuve et al 1 demonstrated that 36% of patients with COPD had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), compared with 12% of healthy subjects. The authors took(More)