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Over the past 20 years, abundant evidence has been collected to suggest that gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptors play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers. In fact, the detection of GRP and the GRP receptor in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and the demonstration that anti-GRP antibodies inhibited proliferation in(More)
BACKGROUND Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal condition in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer (PC). Despite numerous studies showing the expression of HIF1α protein under normoxia in PC cell lines, the role of this normoxic HIF1α expression in chemo-resistance and migration has not been investigated(More)
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has a widespread distribution and multiple stimulating effects on endocrine and exocrine secretions and metabolism. The prohormone for GRP (ProGRP, 125 amino acids) is processed to the amidated, biologically active end products GRP(1-27) and GRP(18-27). Amidated forms of GRP are putative autocrine or paracrine growth factors(More)
All forms of the neuropeptide gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are derived from the precursor proGRP1-125. Amidated GRP18-27, which together with amidated GRP1-27 was long thought to be the only biologically relevant product of the GRP gene, is involved in a multitude of physiological functions and acts as a mitogen, morphogen, and proangiogenic factor in(More)
Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α increases the risk of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and metastases in patients on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PC). We aimed to investigate the effects of nonspecific HIF1α inhibitors (Digoxin, metformin, and angiotensin-2 receptor blockers) on development of CRPC and(More)
The many biological activities of the hormone gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), including stimulation of acid secretion and of tumour growth, are mediated by the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Here sequence comparisons are utilised to investigate the likely bioactive regions of the 125 amino acid GRP precursor and of GRP-R. Comparison of the(More)
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) acts as an important regulatory peptide in several normal physiological processes and as a growth factor in certain cancers. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge of GRP in urological tissues under both normal and cancerous conditions. GRP and its receptor, GRP-R, are expressed(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To describe recent advances in our understanding of the evolution of gastrointestinal hormones, with the gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK) family as a model. RECENT FINDINGS The release of 11 genomic sequences in the last year has provided a wealth of additional information on peptide hormone sequences. The alternative approach of reverse(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Processing of progastrin, the 80-amino acid precursor of the hormone gastrin, generates a variety of peptides with distinct distributions and biological activities. However, little is known regarding the expression, secretion, and biological activity of the 6-amino acid C-terminal flanking peptide (CTFP) of progastrin. The objectives were(More)
Although amidated forms of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) have been identified as autocrine growth factors in small cell lung cancer, their role in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma is less clear. In addition, the biological activity of non-amidated gastrin-releasing peptide has not been investigated in colorectal carcinoma cells. We(More)