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OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate counseling efficacy among high-risk groups. STUDY We conducted a subset analysis of data collected from July 1993 through September 1996 during a randomized, controlled trial (Project RESPECT). Participants (n = 4328) from 5 public U.S. sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics were assigned to(More)
BACKGROUND Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10%(More)
The World Health Organization recommends that countries adopt more effective antiretroviral regimens to increase the effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission programs. The 2006 guidelines recommend a tiered approach for the delivery of antiretroviral to pregnant women who are infected with HIV and(More)
Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health(More)
In June 2011, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and other collaborators outlined a transformative plan to virtually eliminate pediatric AIDS worldwide. The ambitious targets of this initiative included a 90% reduction in new pediatric HIV infections and a 50% reduction in HIV-related(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for developing severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or 4 hepatotoxicity) and rash-associated hepatotoxicity (rash with ≥ grade 2 hepatotoxicity) among women initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS The Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Response Study was a(More)
Prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (PMTCT) programs have nearly eliminated mother-to-child transmission of HIV in developed countries, but progress in resource-limited countries has been slow. A key factor limiting the scale-up of PMTCT programs is lack of knowledge of HIV serostatus. Increasing the availability(More)
Nigeria has one of the highest HIV burdens as well as mother-to-infant transmission rates in the world. A pilot program using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens was implemented to enable early identification of HIV-infected infants and timely referral and linkage to care. From February 2007 to October 2008,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role of participant factors on the acceptance of a Prevention-of-Mother-to-Child (PMTCT) HIV test programme in a situation with an opt-out testing strategy. METHODS We analysed antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sentinel surveillance data. All 43 sites in the 2005 round of Kenya's ANC surveillance offered opt-out PMTCT services and(More)
OBJECTIVE In Africa, HIV surveillance is conducted among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees using unlinked-anonymous testing (UAT). In Kenya, the utility of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program data for HIV surveillance was evaluated. METHODS UAT and PMTCT data were compared at the same clinics and for the same time (2003 UAT survey)(More)