Omkar Uday Kawalekar

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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large outbreaks worldwide in recent years. Acute-phase CHIKV infection has been reported to cause mild to severe febrile illness, and in some patients, this may be followed by long-lasting polyarthritis. The mainstay of treatment includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other disease-modifying agents, the use of(More)
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) redirect T cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, providing a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. Despite extensive clinical use, the attributes of CAR co-stimulatory domains that impact persistence and resistance to exhaustion of CAR-T cells remain largely undefined. Here, we report the influence of signaling(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Acute illness is characterized by fever, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, rash, and sometimes arthritis. Relatively little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for the pathogen.(More)
Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes fever disease, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, and arthralgia. Indigenous to tropical Africa, recent large outbreaks have been reported in parts of South East Asia and several of its neighboring islands in 2005-07 and in Europe in 2007.(More)
Recent evidence demonstrates that HIV-1 infection leads to the attenuation of cellular immune responses, which has been correlated with the increased expression of programmed death (PD)-1 on virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. PD-1 is induced upon T cell activation, and its prolonged expression facilitates CD8(+) T cell inhibitory signals when bound to its B7(More)
DNA-based vaccines, while highly immunogenic in mice, generate significantly weaker responses in primates. Therefore, current efforts are aimed at increasing their immunogenicity, which include optimizing the plasmid/gene, the vaccine formulation and method of delivery. For example, co-immunization with molecular adjuvants encoding an immunomodulatory(More)
DNA vaccination has been of great interest since its discovery in the 1990s due to its ability to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. DNA vaccines consist of a DNA plasmid containing a transgene that encodes the sequence of a target protein from a pathogen under the control of a eukaryotic promoter. This revolutionary technology has proven to(More)
Using flow cytometry, single-cell measurements of calcium can be made on isolated populations identified by one or more phenotypic characteristics. Most earlier techniques for measuring cellular activation parameters determined the mean value for a population of cells, which did not permit optimal resolution of the responses. The flow cytometer is(More)
This study compared second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) encoding signaling domains composed of CD28, ICOS, and 4-1BB (TNFRSF9). Here, we report that certain CARs endow T cells with the ability to undergo long-term autonomous proliferation. Transduction of primary human T cells with lentiviral vectors encoding some of the CARs resulted in(More)
By virtue of its ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, the HIV accessory protein Vpr (viral protein R) has been evaluated by us and others as an anti-proliferative/anti-cancer agent. We have demonstrated that Vpr, when delivered to established experimental B16.F10 melanoma tumors in mice as a DNA expression plasmid through in vivo(More)