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In order to evaluate the severity of behavioral complications after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for Parkinson's disease and to explore possible predictive factors, the authors evaluated 22 patients for pre- and postoperative symptoms using a neurobehavioral battery. Compared to the time before STN-DBS, several behavioral(More)
Autosomal-recessive early-onset Parkinsonism (AREP) due to PINK1 mutations is characterized by an early-onset, slowly progressive disease, with a good response to levodopa. Psychiatric and cognitive disturbances associated with AREP have rarely been reported in the literature. We describe 2 brothers from a Jewish-Iraqi consanguineous family with a(More)
BACKGROUND Dopamine (DA) plays an important role in regulating effort expenditure for reward, but whether it is also involved in modulating effort to avoid punishment is not clear. Preference for approach towards rewarding stimuli or away from aversive stimuli is associated with asymmetric activation in anterior brain regions. Asymmetric DA signaling in(More)
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