Learn More
BACKGROUND Observational studies have demonstrated an association between decreased vitamin D level and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it remains unclear whether this relationship is causal. We undertook a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to evaluate whether genetically lowered vitamin D level influences the risk of MS. METHODS AND FINDINGS(More)
Despite increased expenditure, productivity of the pharmaceutical industry has decreased and currently 90% of developed molecules entering phase II and phase III clinical trials fail to gain regulatory approval. Most of these failures are due to lack of therapeutic efficacy rather than lack of safety, suggesting that drug development failures may often be(More)
BACKGROUND A blood test that quantified the extent of brain damage following ischaemic stroke might be a useful surrogate outcome measure in trials of acute stroke treatments. Measures of neuronal and glial damage, such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein, tau-protein, myelin-basic protein and S100-β are potential candidate(More)
In observational studies, type-2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), yet interventional trials have shown no clear effect of glucose-lowering on CHD. Confounding may have therefore influenced these observational estimates. Here we use Mendelian randomization to obtain unconfounded estimates of the influence(More)
Stochasticity alters the nonlinear dynamics of inherently cycling populations. The power spectrum can describe and explain the impacts of stochasticity. We fitted models to short observed time series of flour beetle populations in the frequency domain, then used a well fitting stochastic mechanistic model to generate detailed predictions of population(More)
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is associated in observational studies with both higher bone mineral density (BMD) and higher fracture risk for given BMD. These relationships may however be confounded by factors such as body mass index (BMI). Here we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to obtain non-confounded estimates of the effect of T2D and glycemic traits on BMD.(More)
31 Chronic alcohol exposure-induced changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational 32 state are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted 33 withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic 34 reward system and plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking(More)
  • 1