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The microbial adaptive immune system CRISPR mediates defense against foreign genetic elements through two classes of RNA-guided nuclease effectors. Class 1 effectors utilize multi-protein complexes, whereas class 2 effectors rely on single-component effector proteins such as the well-characterized Cas9. Here, we report characterization of Cpf1, a putative(More)
Systematic interrogation of gene function requires the ability to perturb gene expression in a robust and generalizable manner. Here we describe structure-guided engineering of a CRISPR-Cas9 complex to mediate efficient transcriptional activation at endogenous genomic loci. We used these engineered Cas9 activation complexes to investigate single-guide RNA(More)
Microbial CRISPR-Cas systems are divided into Class 1, with multisubunit effector complexes, and Class 2, with single protein effectors. Currently, only two Class 2 effectors, Cas9 and Cpf1, are known. We describe here three distinct Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems. The effectors of two of the identified systems, C2c1 and C2c3, contain RuvC-like endonuclease(More)
Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important in the clinical management of complex diseases, yet our ability to discover new biomarkers remains limited by our dependence on endogenous molecules. Here we describe the development of exogenously administered 'synthetic biomarkers' composed of mass-encoded peptides conjugated to nanoparticles that leverage(More)
UNLABELLED Most melanomas harbor oncogenic BRAF(V600) mutations, which constitutively activate the MAPK pathway. Although MAPK pathway inhibitors show clinical benefit in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma, it remains incompletely understood why 10% to 20% of patients fail to respond. Here, we show that RAF inhibitor-sensitive and inhibitor-resistant(More)
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) adaptive immune system defends microbes against foreign genetic elements via DNA or RNA-DNA interference. We characterize the class 2 type VI CRISPR-Cas effector C2c2 and demonstrate its RNA-guided ribonuclease function. C2c2 from the bacterium Leptotrichia(More)
We have developed a CRISPR-based method that uses catalytically active Cas9 and distinct single guide (sgRNA) constructs to knock out and activate different genes in the same cell. These sgRNAs, with 14- to 15-bp target sequences and MS2 binding loops, can activate gene expression using an active Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 nuclease, without inducing(More)
CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. It is made available under a The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not. 2 Microbial CRISPR-Cas defense systems have been adapted as a platform for genome editing applications built around the RNA-guided effector nucleases, such as Cas9. We recently reported the(More)
dRNAs can mediate robust gene activation using an active Cas9. Three different dRNAs targeting the HBG1 promoter region were designed. The length of the RNA targeting sequence was varied from 11nt to 20nt. HBG1 mRNA (normalized to GAPDH, and compared to cells transfected with GFP plasmid) was quantified, as well HBG1 indel frequency. In all cases, guides(More)
The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to the guide RNA and has been applied to programmable genome editing. Cas9-mediated cleavage requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) juxtaposed with the DNA target sequence, thus constricting the range of targetable sites. Here, we report the 1.7 Å resolution crystal(More)