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Matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, although its link to disease severity is unclear. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between disease severity assessed by lung function and computed tomography (CT) and sputum MMP-9 expression, concentration and activity in patients with COPD. In 53 COPD… (More)
Asthmatic smokers have poor symptom control and accelerated decline in lung function. A reduced ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in nonsmokers with asthma has been implicated in airway remodelling. We tested the hypothesis that sputum MMP-9 activity/TIMPs ratios are reduced in smokers compared with… (More)
Caudal septal deformities if uncorrected can lead to poor functional and cosmetic outcomes. Adequate fixation of the septum to the maxillary spine is paramount in correcting these deformities. We describe a simple technique for securing the caudal septum to the maxillary spine that stabilises it in all three planes.