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Asthmatic smokers have poor symptom control and accelerated decline in lung function. A reduced ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in nonsmokers with asthma has been implicated in airway remodelling. We tested the hypothesis that sputum MMP-9 activity/TIMPs ratios are reduced in smokers compared with(More)
Fifteen routine nasal polypectomy specimens submitted to our laboratory over an eight-month period were noted to show marked atypia within areas of squamous metaplasia to a degree suggestive of dysplasia. Reviewing the literature revealed little published work in this area, especially recently. Further nasal polyp cases from this, and a similar previous(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent animal studies demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with movement induces movement-specific plasticity in motor cortex and improves forelimb function after stroke. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical pilot study of VNS paired with rehabilitation on upper-limb function after ischemic stroke. METHODS(More)
KEYPOINTS: Endoscopic ligation of the sphenopalatine artery (ESPAL) has recently become the treatment of choice for refractory epistaxis. This paper reviews the background, indications and potential complications of ESPAL. The main focus of this article is an online video tutorial on the anatomy and surgical technique of ESPAL. Web links lead to video clips(More)
Matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, although its link to disease severity is unclear. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between disease severity assessed by lung function and computed tomography (CT) and sputum MMP-9 expression, concentration and activity in patients with COPD. In 53 COPD(More)
Intensive surgical skills courses have become an essential part of surgical skill acquisition for surgeons in training. There is a need to monitor the value of these courses in terms of skill attainment. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of skills-laboratory-based training in rigid bronchoscopy and bronchial foreign body removal.(More)
BACKGROUND Salivary lumps are common and constitute 13.8% of all lumps assessed at the North Glasgow neck lump clinic. We present our management plan for these conditions. METHOD Literature search using key words salivary lumps or glands or cancer or sialadenitis or sialalisthiasis in combination with diagnosis, management, investigation, treatment,(More)
Objective. We report a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma of the zygomatic arch presenting in a 69-year-old patient. Method. Case report and a review of the world literature on Ewing's sarcoma incidence and management. Results. Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant round cell tumour of neuroectodermal origin that typically presents in the pelvis and long bones of(More)
BACKGROUND The introduction of increasingly high speed drills for mastoid surgery has heightened the concern that cochlea damage may occur in both the operated and nonoperated ear. It has been observed clinically that this damage could be associated with frequencies above 8,000 Hz and that, to observe these changes, high-frequency audiometry should be(More)