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The potential impact of wheat flour fortification with iron and folic acid was assessed using data about food purchases from the nationally representative 2000 Guatemalan Living Standards Measurement Survey. Of 7265 households, 35% were indigenous and 57% rural; 11% were extremely poor, 35% were poor, and 54% were nonpoor. The percentage of households that(More)
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a significant public health problem in many countries. While cost-effective interventions are available to control VAD, reliable information is needed to the track progress of control programmes. However, assessment of VAD is uncommon because current approaches are expensive and not feasible in low-resource settings. The(More)
Two biochemical indicators are currently recommended for determining whether vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem: serum retinol and serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). After consideration of 40 data sets and the original rationale for previously proposed cut-offs, a cut-off for serum retinol concentration was proposed at <0.70 micro mol/L(More)
In developed countries, food fortification has proven an effective and low-cost way to increase the micronutrient supply and reduce the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. It has been rarely used in the developing world, but general conclusions can be drawn. The biological efficacy, but not the effectiveness, of fortifying oil and hydrogenated oil(More)
BACKGROUND Food fortification is one approach for addressing anemia, but information on program effectiveness is limited. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the impact of Costa Rica's fortification program on anemia in women aged 15-45 y and children aged 1-7 y. DESIGN Reduced iron, an ineffective fortificant, was replaced by ferrous fumarate in wheat flour in(More)
Perspectives The importance of scientific evidence to guide nutrition policy and programme design is well established. 1 Nevertheless, there are still critical gaps in the evidence to inform nutrition programme priorities and achievements, 2 and strong pleas have been made for improving the collection and use of evidence in the nutrition sector. 3 Nutrition(More)
BACKGROUND The benefits of food fortification depend on the proportion of the population that uses the fortified food (coverage), the amount of the food being consumed, and the additional content of micronutrients in the food. Coverage and amounts consumed can be determined by 24-hour recall or Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). However, these methods(More)
Perspectives High dietary salt is considered to cause about 30% of cases of hypertension. 1 Globally, approximately one quarter of the adult population has hyperten-sion, a leading risk factor for premature death. By 2025 it will affect 1.56 billion adults in the world and more than 90% of those aged 80 years or more will develop hypertension. High salt(More)
Folate is an essential micronutrient, and its nutritional inadequacy is widespread; hence, programs to increase its intake are necessary. However, many concerns about possible adverse effects due to excesses have been raised. Serum folate levels are directly correlated with intake and, when low, are associated with neural tube defects (NTD), high blood(More)