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In developed countries, food fortification has proven an effective and low-cost way to increase the micronutrient supply and reduce the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. It has been rarely used in the developing world, but general conclusions can be drawn. The biological efficacy, but not the effectiveness, of fortifying oil and hydrogenated oil(More)
Two biochemical indicators are currently recommended for determining whether vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem: serum retinol and serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). After consideration of 40 data sets and the original rationale for previously proposed cut-offs, a cut-off for serum retinol concentration was proposed at <0.70 micro mol/L(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the usefulness of urine sodium (Na) excretion in spot or timed urine samples to estimate population dietary Na intake relative to the gold standard of 24-hour (h) urinary Na. METHODS An electronic literature search was conducted of MEDLINE (from 1950) and EMBASE (from 1980) as well as the Cochrane Library using the terms "sodium,"(More)
The potential impact of wheat flour fortification with iron and folic acid was assessed using data about food purchases from the nationally representative 2000 Guatemalan Living Standards Measurement Survey. Of 7265 households, 35% were indigenous and 57% rural; 11% were extremely poor, 35% were poor, and 54% were nonpoor. The percentage of households that(More)
Esterase activity is monitored in mosquitoes and other arthropod species because high levels of these enzymes can be associated with pesticide resistance. In the 1950s, G. Gomori devised a colorimetric method to detect esterase activity based on their capacity to hydrolyze aryl-esters. We modified this method for use in microtiter plates. Mosquito(More)
Fortification of cereal flours may be a useful public health strategy to combat iron deficiency. Cereal flours that are used shortly after production (e.g., baking flour) can be fortified with soluble iron compounds, such as ferrous sulfate, whereas the majority of flours stored for longer periods is usually fortified with elemental iron powders to avoid(More)
Fortification is the process of adding nutrients or non-nutrient bioactive components to edible products (e.g., food, food constituents, or supplements). Fortification can be used to correct or prevent widespread nutrient intake shortfalls and associated deficiencies, to balance the total nutrient profile of a diet, to restore nutrients lost in processing,(More)
BACKGROUND Food fortification is one approach for addressing anemia, but information on program effectiveness is limited. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the impact of Costa Rica's fortification program on anemia in women aged 15-45 y and children aged 1-7 y. DESIGN Reduced iron, an ineffective fortificant, was replaced by ferrous fumarate in wheat flour in(More)
A test was developed to detect the presence of insecticide-resistant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in single insects based on the quasipermanent binding of proteins onto blotting membranes. The method is simple, sensitive, requires inexpensive equipment, and produces a permanent record of results. AChE activity is revealed by the Karnovsky & Roots staining(More)