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BACKGROUND Bone is the most common metastatic site associated with breast cancer. Using a database of women with breast cancer treated at Guy's Hospital, London 1976-2006 and followed until end 2010, we determined incidence of and survival after bone metastases. METHODS We calculated cumulative incidence of bone metastases considering death without prior(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate metastatic pathways of spread to lymph node versus bone marrow and identify biological characteristics that determine these patterns in early invasive breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 177 patients with early invasive breast cancer underwent surgical extirpation of the primary tumour(More)
BACKGROUND External validation of existing lung cancer risk prediction models is limited. Using such models in clinical practice to guide the referral of patients for computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer depends on external validation and evidence of predicted clinical benefit. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the discrimination of the Liverpool Lung(More)
INTRODUCTION Predictors for site of distant metastasis and impact on survival in breast cancer are incompletely understood. METHODS Clinico-pathological risk factors for site of distant metastasis and survival were analysed in patients with invasive breast cancer treated between 1986 and 2006. RESULTS Of 3553 patients, with median follow-up 6.32years,(More)
BACKGROUND In breast cancer patients (≥70 years), tumour resection plus tamoxifen (T + T) has a higher loco-regional relapse (LR) rate than mastectomy. This study examines factors influencing local recurrence in these cases. METHODS Clinical records of 71 patients aged ≥70 years, randomised to the T + T arm of 2 randomised trials were reviewed. Cox(More)
Breast cancer survivors frequently experience severe hot flushes as a result of their treatment. This can adversely affect their quality of life, compliance with treatment and overall survival. To relieve vasomotor symptoms, a variety of drugs have been used including clonidine, gabapentin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective(More)
BACKGROUND The management of the axilla in the presence of positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) remains controversial. Many centres forgo completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) in the presence of micrometastatic disease. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trialists argue for extending this to macrometastasis. The aim of(More)
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