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BACKGROUND The relative respiratory effects of fentanyl and remifentanil, administered as i.v. bolus, have not previously been studied. We determined what remifentanil bolus dose gave the same maximum depression of ventilation as 1 µg kg(-1) of fentanyl. METHODS Twelve healthy volunteers rebreathed in a system designed to dampen variations in end-tidal(More)
An open circuit tracer gas washout method for measurement of lung volume in patients during anesthesia and intensive care is described and tested. The method employs a device for dispensing the tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a fast SF6 analyzer, a pneumotachograph, and a computer. The dispensing device delivers SF6 into the airway in proportion to(More)
The effects of fetal asphyxia on cerebral function and development, involve the transition from fetal to neonatal life. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism may be an early postnatal indicator of fetal asphyxia. The objective is to develop an experimental lamb model involving the transition from fetal to neonatal life and to examine the effect of fetal(More)
A new way of saving anaesthetic vapours is described. The method is analogous to the heat-moisture exchanger principle: the vapour is trapped in a filter during expiration and is returned to the patient during the subsequent inspiration. Fresh vapour is supplied on the patient side of the filter. A small container with 60 ml of a hydrophobic zeolite (an(More)
BACKGROUND The benefits of hypothermia during acute severe anemia are not entirely settled. The authors hypothesized that cooling would improve tolerance to anemia. METHODS Eight normothermic (38.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C) and eight hypothermic (32.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C) pigs anesthetized with midazolam-fentanyl-vecuronium-isoflurane (0.5% inspired concentration)(More)
The reason why some infants with respiratory distress syndrome fail to respond to surfactant, or respond only transiently, is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that resuscitation with large breaths at birth might damage the lungs and blunt the effect of surfactant. Five pairs of lamb siblings were delivered by cesarean section at 127-128 d of(More)
The mechanical behavior of the lung and chest wall has not been determined in preschool children. We therefore obtained static expiratory pressure-volume (P-V) curves of the respiratory system, partitioned into lung and chest wall components using esophageal (Pes) and airway pressure (Paw) registration in 17 anesthetized children (0.2 to 15.5 yr) in the(More)
BACKGROUND In mature animals with surfactant deficiency induced by lung lavage, the therapeutic effect of exogenous surfactant is enhanced by a lung recruitment maneuver. We then tested whether a lung recruitment maneuver at birth immediately before surfactant treatment would improve lung function also in preterm lambs with surfactant deficiency due to(More)
Recent studies indicate a severely reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR) in neonates with congenital heart disease. The significance of these studies remains debatable, as the ability of the anatomically normal neonatal heart to increase coronary flow is currently unknown. This study was designed to establish normal values for CFR in newborns after(More)
Total lung capacity (TLC), inspiratory capacity (IC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and deflation pressure-volume (P-V) curves were studied in 16 intubated neonates (540-3300 g), 10 with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 6 air-ventilated with normal chest radiograms. FRC was measured using washout of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride),(More)