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OBJECTIVE To describe a method of determining the three-dimensional topology of the palatal crest relative to a reproducible anthropomorphic coordinate system in newborn infants with unilateral cleft palate. For this purpose, physical models of the maxilla and face were analyzed by computer morphometry. DESIGN The study was limited to infants referred to(More)
The reason why some infants with respiratory distress syndrome fail to respond to surfactant, or respond only transiently, is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that resuscitation with large breaths at birth might damage the lungs and blunt the effect of surfactant. Five pairs of lamb siblings were delivered by cesarean section at 127-128 d of(More)
A modification of a computerized tracer gas (SF6) washout method was designed for serial measurements of functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation homogeneity in mechanically ventilated very-low-birth-weight infants with tidal volumes down to 4 ml. The method, which can be used regardless of the inspired O2 concentration, gave accurate and(More)
Six indexes for diagnosing uneven ventilation by tracer gas washout were studied. The indexes were lung clearance index, mixing ratio, Becklake index, multiple-breath alveolar mixing inefficiency, moment ratio, and pulmonary clearance delay, all of which increase with impaired pulmonary gas mixing. In model lung tests, indexes that compared the actual(More)
BACKGROUND In mature animals with surfactant deficiency induced by lung lavage, the therapeutic effect of exogenous surfactant is enhanced by a lung recruitment maneuver. We then tested whether a lung recruitment maneuver at birth immediately before surfactant treatment would improve lung function also in preterm lambs with surfactant deficiency due to(More)
An infrared analyzer for the inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is described and evaluated. The analyzer consists of a transducer and a processor unit. It is designed to operate in a nonrebreathing system with a ventilator and a computer. The transducer, which is placed over a cuvette with windows in the ventilator tubings, reads the SF6(More)
The Siemens-Elema CO2 Analyzer 930 allows calculation of carbon dioxide elimination from the instantaneous measurement of expired gas flow (VE) and carbon dioxide fraction (FECO2). VE is measured in the ventilator and FECO2 at the Y-piece. The most important source of error in the measurement of carbon dioxide elimination is rebreathing, which corresponds(More)
The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) and dopamine infusion (4 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) on superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF), the mesenteric arteriovenous oxygen difference (AVDO2), and the mesenteric venous lactate concentration were studied in nine patients before abdominal aortic reconstruction. Thoracic epidural anesthesia reduced(More)
An open circuit tracer gas washout method for measurement of lung volume in patients during anesthesia and intensive care is described and tested. The method employs a device for dispensing the tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a fast SF6 analyzer, a pneumotachograph, and a computer. The dispensing device delivers SF6 into the airway in proportion to(More)
The effect of natural surfactant on respiratory system mechanics in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is incompletely understood, possibly because the analysis has usually been confined to the tidal breath. We studied 11 paralyzed neonates weighing 540 to 1,850 g before and approximately 30 min after surfactant, which was instilled at 4 to 41(More)