Learn More
In recent years evidence has been accumulating that personalities are not only found in humans but also in a wide range of other animal species. Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural tendencies and the behaviour in one context is correlated with the behaviour in multiple other contexts. From an adaptive perspective, the evolution of animal(More)
How can cooperation through indirect reciprocity evolve and what would it be like? This problem has previously been studied by simulating evolution in a small group of interacting individuals, assuming no gene flow between groups. In these simulations, certain 'image scoring' strategies were found to be the most successful. However, analytical arguments(More)
Disruptive selection occurs when extreme phenotypes have a fitness advantage over more intermediate phenotypes. The phenomenon is particularly interesting when selection keeps a population in a disruptive regime. This can lead to increased phenotypic variation while disruptive selection itself is diminished or eliminated. Here, we review processes that(More)
The social organization of most mammals is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal. Such sex-biased dispersal can cause the genetic structure of populations to differ between the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the bi-parental nuclear genome. Here we report on the global genetic structure of oceanic populations of the sperm(More)
During bouts of evolutionary diversification, such as adaptive radiations, the emerging species cluster around different locations in phenotype space. How such multimodal patterns in phenotype space can emerge from a single ancestral species is a fundamental question in biology. Frequency-dependent competition is one potential mechanism for such pattern(More)
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced in 37 sperm whales from a large part of the global range of the species. Nucleotide diversity was several-fold lower than that reported for control regions of abundant and outbred mammals, but similar to that for populations known to have experienced bottlenecks. Relative neck tests did not suggest(More)
A major question for the study of phenotypic evolution is whether intra- and interspecific diversity originates directly from genetic variation, or instead, as plastic responses to environmental influences initially, followed later by genetic change. In species with discrete alternative phenotypes, evolutionary sequences can be inferred from transitions(More)
A basic idea of plant defences is that a plant should gain protection from its own defence. In addition, there is evidence that defence traits of the neighbouring plants can influence the degree of protection of an individual plant. These associational effects depend in part on the spatial scale of herbivore selectivity. A strong between-patch selectivity(More)
Service providers may vary service quality depending on whether they work alone or provide the service simultaneously with a partner. The latter case resembles a prisoner's dilemma, in which one provider may try to reap the benefits of the interaction without providing the service. Here we present a game-theory model based on the marginal value theorem,(More)