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The gonads are usually considered quiescent organs in infancy and childhood. However, during the first few postnatal months of life, levels of gonadotropins and sex hormones are elevated in humans. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that environmental factors operating perinatally may influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early(More)
The risk determinants of type 1 diabetes, initiators of autoimmune response, mechanisms regulating progress toward beta cell failure, and factors determining time of presentation of clinical diabetes are poorly understood. We investigated changes in the serum metabolome prospectively in children who later progressed to type 1 diabetes. Serum metabolite(More)
Several studies have shown that gut bacteria have a role in diabetes in murine models. Specific bacteria have been correlated with the onset of diabetes in a rat model. However, it is unknown whether human intestinal microbes have a role in the development of autoimmunity that often leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disorder in which(More)
Recent studies have suggested a bacterial role in the development of autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Over 30 billion nucleotide bases of Illumina shotgun metagenomic data were analyzed from stool samples collected from four pairs of matched T1D case-control subjects collected at the time of the development of T1D associated(More)
Aims/hypothesis. Population-wide genetic screening of susceptibility to multifactorial diseases will become relevant as knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases increases and preventive interventions are identified. Methods. Feasibility and acceptance of neonatal genetic screening for Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus susceptibility and(More)
The diabetes predisposing effect of HLA genes is defined by a complex interaction of various haplotypes. We analyzed the disease association of HLA DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genotypes in a large nuclear family cohort (n = 622) collected in Finland. Using the affected family based artificial control approach we aimed at characterizing all detectable disease-specific(More)
IMPORTANCE Type 1 diabetes usually has a preclinical phase identified by circulating islet autoantibodies, but the rate of progression to diabetes after seroconversion to islet autoantibodies is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of progression to diabetes after islet autoantibody seroconversion. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were(More)
The rapidly increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes implies that environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis. Enteroviruses are among the suspected environmental triggers of the disease, and the interest in exploring the possibilities to develop vaccines against these viruses has increased. Our objective was to identify enterovirus serotypes that(More)
Previous studies suggest that enterovirus infections may initiate and accelerate beta-cell damage years before the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. We have now analyzed the role of enterovirus infections in the initiation of autoimmunity in children who have tested positive for diabetes-associated autoantibodies in a prospective study starting at(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D is known to have a number of immunological effects and it may play a role in preventing allergic diseases. Objectives To study the effect of maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy on the emergence of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic eczema by the age of 5 years in children with HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility for type(More)