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Several studies have shown that gut bacteria have a role in diabetes in murine models. Specific bacteria have been correlated with the onset of diabetes in a rat model. However, it is unknown whether human intestinal microbes have a role in the development of autoimmunity that often leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disorder in which(More)
AIMS The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study seeks to identify environmental factors influencing the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) using intensive follow-up of children at elevated genetic risk. This study requires a cost-effective yet accurate screening strategy to identify the high-risk cohort. METHODS The TEDDY(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Population-wide genetic screening of susceptibility to multifactorial diseases will become relevant as knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases increases and preventive interventions are identified. METHODS Feasibility and acceptance of neonatal genetic screening for Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus susceptibility and(More)
The risk determinants of type 1 diabetes, initiators of autoimmune response, mechanisms regulating progress toward beta cell failure, and factors determining time of presentation of clinical diabetes are poorly understood. We investigated changes in the serum metabolome prospectively in children who later progressed to type 1 diabetes. Serum metabolite(More)
Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis development might be delayed or prevented by dietary measures. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol dietary counseling on fat intakes, growth, serum cholesterol values, and pubertal development in children and adolescents. METHODS AND RESULTS In the randomized(More)
IMPORTANCE Type 1 diabetes usually has a preclinical phase identified by circulating islet autoantibodies, but the rate of progression to diabetes after seroconversion to islet autoantibodies is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of progression to diabetes after islet autoantibody seroconversion. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were(More)
The diabetes predisposing effect of HLA genes is defined by a complex interaction of various haplotypes. We analyzed the disease association of HLA DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genotypes in a large nuclear family cohort (n = 622) collected in Finland. Using the affected family based artificial control approach we aimed at characterizing all detectable disease-specific(More)
Recent studies have suggested a bacterial role in the development of autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Over 30 billion nucleotide bases of Illumina shotgun metagenomic data were analyzed from stool samples collected from four pairs of matched T1D case-control subjects collected at the time of the development of T1D associated(More)
Insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) often appear as the first sign of islet cell autoimmunity in prediabetic children. Because cow's milk contains bovine insulin, we followed the development of insulin-binding antibodies in children fed with cow's milk formula. Bovine insulin- and human insulin-binding antibodies by enzyme immunoassay and IAA by radioimmunoassay(More)