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Several studies have shown that gut bacteria have a role in diabetes in murine models. Specific bacteria have been correlated with the onset of diabetes in a rat model. However, it is unknown whether human intestinal microbes have a role in the development of autoimmunity that often leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disorder in which(More)
Recent studies have suggested a bacterial role in the development of autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Over 30 billion nucleotide bases of Illumina shotgun metagenomic data were analyzed from stool samples collected from four pairs of matched T1D case-control subjects collected at the time of the development of T1D associated(More)
The risk determinants of type 1 diabetes, initiators of autoimmune response, mechanisms regulating progress toward beta cell failure, and factors determining time of presentation of clinical diabetes are poorly understood. We investigated changes in the serum metabolome prospectively in children who later progressed to type 1 diabetes. Serum metabolite(More)
Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes(More)
Previous studies suggest that enterovirus infections may initiate and accelerate beta-cell damage years before the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. We have now analyzed the role of enterovirus infections in the initiation of autoimmunity in children who have tested positive for diabetes-associated autoantibodies in a prospective study starting at(More)
Recent evidence from serum metabolomics indicates that specific metabolic disturbances precede β-cell autoimmunity in humans and can be used to identify those children who subsequently progress to type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. Here we show the specificity of the pre-autoimmune metabolic changes, as indicated by their(More)
In IDDM, mononuclear cells accumulate in the islets of Langerhans and destroy insulin-producing beta-cells. To study the mechanisms that control extravasation of circulating mononuclear cells into the pancreas, we examined the phenotype of vascular endothelium of the pancreas, propagated a T-cell line from pancreatic islets at the onset of the disease and(More)
Interventions to avoid atherosclerosis might be more successful if launched early in life when eating and life-style patterns are formed, but dietary interventions have been limited by fears of diet-induced growth failure. We investigated the effects of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol on serum lipid concentrations and growth in 1062 healthy(More)
The intestinal microbiota is essential to the maturation and homeostasis of the immune system. Immunoblot assays were used to establish the prevalence of serum IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies specific for Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG proteins in young children presenting with or without type 1 diabetes(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze in vivo brain creatine (Cr) content in gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinemia (GA). BACKGROUND GA is caused by inherited deficiency of ornithine-delta-aminotransferase activity. Patients lose their vision by middle age and develop selective atrophy of type II skeletal muscle fibers. As demonstrated by MRS, the(More)