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Toward exploiting the attractive mechanical properties of cellulose I nanoelements, a novel route is demonstrated, which combines enzymatic hydrolysis and mechanical shearing. Previously, an aggressive acid hydrolysis and sonication of cellulose I containing fibers was shown to lead to a network of weakly hydrogen-bonded rodlike cellulose elements typically(More)
Self-assembly is a process in which interacting bodies are autonomously driven into ordered structures. Static structures such as crystals often form through simple energy minimization, whereas dynamic ones require continuous energy input to grow and sustain. Dynamic systems are ubiquitous in nature and biology but have proven challenging to understand and(More)
Hydrophobins are secreted fungal proteins, which have diverse roles in fungal growth and development. They lower the surface tension of water, work as adhesive agents and coatings, and function through self-assembly. One of the characteristic properties of hydrophobins is their tendency to form fibrillar or rod-like aggregates at interfaces. Their structure(More)
Nacre-mimicking hybrids of high inorganic content (>50 wt %) tend to show low strain-to-failure. Therefore, we prepared clay nanopaper hybrid composite montmorillonite platelets in a continuous matrix of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the aim of harnessing the intrinsic toughness of fibrillar networks. Hydrocolloid mixtures were used in a filtration(More)
Nanostructured biological materials inspire the creation of materials with tunable mechanical properties. Strong cellulose nanofibrils derived from bacteria or wood can form ductile or tough networks that are suitable as functional materials. Here, we show that freeze-dried bacterial cellulose nanofibril aerogels can be used as templates for making(More)
Mechanically excellent native cellulose nanofibers that are cleaved from plant cell walls have been modified by functionalized few-walled carbon nanotubes for hybrid nanofiber/nanotube aerogels. They show elastic mechanical behavior in combination with reversible electrical response under compression allowing responsive conductivity and pressure sensing.(More)
Hydrophobins are highly surface-active proteins that are specific to filamentous fungi. They function as coatings on various fungal structures, enable aerial growth of hyphae, and facilitate attachment to surfaces. Little is known about their structures and structure-function relationships. In this work we show highly organized surface layers of(More)
A series of novel, partially labeled amphiphilic triblock copolypeptides, PLL-b-PBLG-d7-b-PLL, has been synthesized, where PLL and PBLG-d7 are poly(L-lysine hydrochloride) and poly(gamma-benzyl-d7-L-glutamate), respectively. The synthetic approach involved the sequential ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate and epsilon-Boc-L-lysine(More)
Although remarkable success has been achieved to mimic the mechanically excellent structure of nacre in laboratory-scale models, it remains difficult to foresee mainstream applications due to time-consuming sequential depositions or energy-intensive processes. Here, we introduce a surprisingly simple and rapid methodology for large-area, lightweight, and(More)
Self-assembly of polymeric supramolecules is a powerful tool for producing functional materials that combine several properties and may respond to external conditions. We illustrate the concept using a comb-shaped architecture. Examples include the hexagonal self-organization of conjugated conducting polymers and the polarized luminance in solid-state films(More)