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PURPOSE The phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway is frequently altered in breast cancer. PTEN, a phosphatase that opposes the effect of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, can be mutated or lost, whereas the PIK3CA gene is mutated. These have been proposed as alternative mechanisms, and their clinicalpathology significance is under discussion. In this(More)
Tamoxifen therapy reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs the survival of oestrogen-receptor-positive patients with breast cancer. Even if most patients benefit from tamoxifen, many breast tumours either fail to respond or become resistant. Because tamoxifen is extensively metabolised by polymorphic enzymes, one proposed mechanism underlying the(More)
Tamoxifen is widely used as endocrine therapy for oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. However, many of these patients experience recurrence despite tamoxifen therapy by incompletely understood mechanisms. In the present report we propose that tamoxifen resistance may be due to differences in activity of metabolic enzymes as a result of genetic(More)
Single-strand RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in many aspects of RNA metabolism and in the regulation of gene transcription. The RBP RBM3 was recently suggested to be a proto-oncogene in colorectal cancer; however, such a role has not been corroborated by previous studies in the colon or other tumor types, and the prognostic implications of(More)
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and its core member enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mediate the epigenetic gene silencing mark: trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3). H3K27me3 is characteristic of the chromatin at genes involved in developmental regulation in undifferentiated cells. Overexpression of EZH2 has been found in several(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials implicate the estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) to be a prognostic and a treatment-predictive factor, although results are not unanimous. We have further investigated this using a controlled randomised trial of tamoxifen versus control. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 564 premenopausal women(More)
The serine/threonine kinase Akt, or protein kinase B, has recently been a focus of interest because of its activity to inhibit apoptosis. It mediates cell survival by acting as a transducer of signals from growth factor receptors that activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. We analysed the expression of the isoforms Akt1 and Akt2 as well as phosphorylated(More)
Knockdown of the tumor suppressor phosphatase Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) with shRNA in three estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines resulted in increased phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and AKT activities, resistance to tamoxifen and fulvestrant, and hormone-independent growth. PTEN knockdown(More)
Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in the majority of human breast cancers. We previously found that mice lacking cyclin D1 are resistant to mammary carcinomas triggered by the ErbB-2 oncogene. In this study, we investigated which function of cyclin D1 is required for ErbB-2-driven mammary oncogenesis. We report that the ability of cyclin D1 to activate(More)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNB) has poor prognosis and moreover patients with TNB do not benefit from established targeted drugs with endocrine therapy or trastuzumab. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of candidate biomarkers in tumors from patients with TNB. Tissue microarrays were prepared from primary tumors from premenopausal breast(More)