Olivier Toussaint

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Eukaryotic cells have to constantly cope with highly reactive oxygen-derived free radicals. Their defense against these free radicals is achieved by natural antioxidant molecules but also by antioxidant enzymes. In this paper, we review some of the data comparing the efficiency of three different antioxidant enzymes: Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD),(More)
We tested the long-term effects of sublethal oxidative stresses on replicative senescence. WI-38 human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) at early cumulative population doublings (CPDs) were exposed to five stresses with 30 microM tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). After at least 2 d of recovery, the cells developed biomarkers of replicative senescence: loss of(More)
Normal cells can permanently lose the ability to proliferate when challenged by potentially oncogenic stress, a process termed cellular senescence. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal) activity, detectable at pH 6.0, permits the identification of senescent cells in culture and mammalian tissues. Here we describe first a cytochemical protocol(More)
Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is induced 3 days after exposure of human diploid fibroblasts to subcytotoxic oxidative stress with H(2)O(2), with appearance of several biomarkers of replicative senescence. In this work, we show that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) regulates the induction of several of these biomarkers in SIPS:(More)
Various human proliferative cell types exposed in vitro to many types of subcytotoxic stresses undergo stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). The known mechanisms of appearance the main features of SIPS are reviewed: senescent-like morphology, growth arrest, senescence-related changes in gene expression. All cell types undergoing SIPS in vivo, are(More)
The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR) is a collection of online resources for studying the biology of human ageing. HAGR features two main databases: GenAge and AnAge. GenAge is a curated database of genes related to human ageing. Entries were primarily selected based on genetic perturbations in animal models and human diseases as well as an extensive(More)
Early passage human diploid fibroblasts develop senescent morphology prematurely within a week after a 2-hour pulse treatment with low or mild dose H(2)O(2). We test here the role of cell cycle checkpoints, cytoskeletal proteins and de novo protein synthesis in senescent morphogenesis following H(2)O(2) treatment. H(2)O(2) treatment causes transient(More)
Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of raw and processed cereal food, adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Since DON acts as a protein synthesis inhibitor, the constantly renewing intestinal epithelium could be particularly sensitive to DON. We analyzed the toxicological effects of DON on intestinal epithelial(More)
Background:Alterations in the composition of gut microbiota —known as dysbiosis— have been proposed to contribute to the development of obesity, thereby supporting the potential interest of nutrients acting on the gut microbes to produce beneficial effect on host energetic metabolism. Non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates present in cereals may be(More)
BACKGROUND INFORMATION Aging of human skeletal muscle results in a decline in muscle mass and force, and excessive turnover of muscle fibres, such as in muscular dystrophies, further increases this decline. Although it has been shown in rodents, by cross-age transplantation of whole muscles, that the environment plays an important role in this process, the(More)