Olivier Schwartz

Learn More
The primate lentivirus auxiliary protein Vpx counteracts an unknown restriction factor that renders human dendritic and myeloid cells largely refractory to HIV-1 infection. Here we identify SAMHD1 as this restriction factor. SAMHD1 is a protein involved in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a genetic encephalopathy with symptoms mimicking congenital viral(More)
A putative chemokine receptor that we previously cloned and termed LESTR has recently been shown to function as a co-receptor (termed fusin) for lymphocyte-tropic HIV-1 strains. Cells expressing CD4 became permissive to infection with T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 strains of the syncytium-inducing phenotype after transfection with LESTR/fusin complementary DNA.(More)
Like other pathogenic viruses, HIV-1 down-modulates surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules in infected cells, thus impairing lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We have observed that this phenomenon depends on the expression of Nef. nef is an early gene of primate lentiviruses, which is necessary for maintaining high(More)
Cell-to-cell viral transfer facilitates the spread of lymphotropic retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), likely through the formation of "virological synapses" between donor and target cells. Regarding HIV replication, the importance of cell contacts has been demonstrated, but this phenomenon remains(More)
An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) efficiently propagates through cell-to-cell contacts, which include virological synapses (VS), filopodia, and nanotubes. Here, we quantified and characterized further these diverse modes of contact in lymphocytes. We report that viral transmission mainly occurs across VS and through "polysynapses," a rosette-like(More)
Early interactions between lung dendritic cells (LDCs) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, are thought to be critical for mounting a protective anti-mycobacterial immune response and for determining the outcome of infection. However, these interactions are poorly understood, at least at the molecular level. Here we show(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for a recent, unexpectedly severe epidemic in countries of the Indian Ocean region. Although many alphaviruses have been well studied, little was known about the biology and pathogenesis of CHIKV at the time of the 2005 outbreak. Over the past 5 years there has been a(More)
Cell-free HIV-1 virions are poor stimulators of type I interferon (IFN) production. We examined here how HIV-infected cells are recognized by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and by other cells. We show that infected lymphocytes are more potent inducers of IFN than virions. There are target cell-type differences in the recognition of infected(More)
Dengue virus (DV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes haemorrhagic fever in humans. DV primarily targets immature dendritic cells (DCs) after a bite by an infected mosquito vector. Here, we analysed the interactions between DV and human-monocyte-derived DCs at the level of virus entry. We show that the DC-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin(More)