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Ant Colonies optimization take inspiration from the behavior of real ant colonies to solve optimization problems. This paper presents a parallel model for ant colonies to solve the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The cooperation between simulated ants is provided by a pheromone matrix that plays the role of a global memory. The exploration of the search(More)
Ant Colonies AC optimization take inspiration from the behavior of real ant colonies to solve optimization problems. This paper presents a parallel model for ant colonies to solve the quadratic assignment problem QAP. Parallelism demonstrates that cooperation between communicating agents improve the obtained results in solving the QAP. It demonstrates also(More)
Although several species of the genus Cotesia are used in biological control programs against insect caterpillars throughout the world, little is known of their oviposition behavior. We describe here the types and distribution of antennal sensilla in Cotesia plutellae, a larval parasitoid of Plutella xylostella, and we analyze its oviposition behavior.(More)
Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as "myrmecophytes" that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from(More)
We assessed the occurrence of algae in five species of tank-bromeliads found in contrasting environmental sites in a Neotropical, primary rainforest around the Nouragues Research Station, French Guiana. The distributions of both algal abundance and biomass were examined based on physical parameters, the morphological characteristics of bromeliad species and(More)
Because territoriality is energetically costly, territorial animals frequently respond less aggressively to neighbours than to strangers, a reaction known as the "dear enemy phenomenon" (DEP). The contrary, the "nasty neighbour effect" (NNE), occurs mainly for group-living species defending resource-based territories. We studied the relationships between(More)
Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover,(More)
Myrmecophytes offer plant-ants a nesting place in exchange for protection from their enemies, particularly defoliators. These obligate ant-plant mutualisms are common model systems for studying factors that allow horizontally transmitted mutualisms to persist since parasites of ant-myrmecophyte mutualisms exploit the rewards provided by host plants whilst(More)