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A stereotaxic atlas of the pig brain has been established. It consists of 60 frontal and 18 sagittal drawings illustrating Nissl stained sections. A stereotaxic apparatus adapted for the Pig was used to determine the brain coordinates. Radiographic techniques were applied to verify the correct position of the central nervous structures in the apparatus. The(More)
Retrograde transneuronal tracing with rabies virus from the left bulbospongiosus muscle (BS) was used to identify the neural circuits underlying its peripheral and central activation. Rats were killed at 2, 3, 4, and 5 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Rabies immunolabelling was combined with immunohistochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase and(More)
Penile erection is caused by a change of the activity of efferent autonomic pathways to the erectile tissues and of somatic pathways to the perineal striated muscles. The spinal cord contains the cell bodies of autonomic and somatic motoneurons that innervate the peripheral targets. The sympathetic outflow is mainly antierectile, the sacral parasympathetic(More)
Reflexogenic penile erections have been previously described in the rat. However, exact involvement of the corpus cavernosum in reflex responses is indefinite. We report changes in intracavernous pressure (ICP) recorded in 10 awake rats by means of a telemetric device. The ICP changes and penile reflex responses (lengthening of the penile body, glans(More)
Penile erection is completely dependent on commands from the central nervous system. Spinal centers controlling penile erection are located in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spinal cord. These centers are activated by information from the periphery and supraspinal nuclei so as to elicit penile erection in a variety of physiological contexts. A small(More)
An apparatus has been developed derived from the Horsley-Clarke principle. Specific requirement was to use large breeds of pigs from weaning to adult age (5 to 120 kg). The pig auditory canals are oblique; the measurement of the corresponding angles was achieved by means of two interconnected barrels, used afterwards to fix the ear-bars. The wide(More)
N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine or muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is the minimally active subunit of bacterial peptidoglycan. During a systemic infection, the involvement of MDP has been demonstrated in food intake depression by the macrophage hydrolysis of Gram-positive bacteria. Under normal conditions, mammals are constantly exposed to the release of(More)
The purpose of the present investigations was (1) to examine the spatial organization of preganglionic neurons of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus in the lumbosacral spinal cord of male adult rats and (2) to search, in this nucleus, for a possible segregation of sub-populations of neurons innervating the penis or the bladder, respectively. To estimate(More)
The lumbosacral spinal cord contains neurones that control the lower urogenital and digestive tracts. Spinal neurones respond to activation from the periphery and supraspinal nuclei. Glutamate, acting through a variety of receptors, is an established transmitter of excitatory pathways to the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemical methods, we reveal the(More)
This study was undertaken to determine whether the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve is involved in the depression of food intake induced by the ingestion of a high protein diet (P50) in rats. After total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Vago group) or sham surgery (Sham group), rats consumed the control diet for a 2-wk recovery period and then both groups consumed(More)