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Retrograde transneuronal tracing with rabies virus from the left bulbospongiosus muscle (BS) was used to identify the neural circuits underlying its peripheral and central activation. Rats were killed at 2, 3, 4, and 5 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Rabies immunolabelling was combined with immunohistochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase and(More)
A stereotaxic atlas of the pig brain has been established. It consists of 60 frontal and 18 sagittal drawings illustrating Nissl stained sections. A stereotaxic apparatus adapted for the Pig was used to determine the brain coordinates. Radiographic techniques were applied to verify the correct position of the central nervous structures in the apparatus. The(More)
N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine or muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is the minimally active subunit of bacterial peptidoglycan. During a systemic infection, the involvement of MDP has been demonstrated in food intake depression by the macrophage hydrolysis of Gram-positive bacteria. Under normal conditions, mammals are constantly exposed to the release of(More)
The role of autonomic and somatic neural pathways involved in the control of penile erectile tissue was investigated in an in vivo rat model. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) changes were recorded during single or combined electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves in anesthetized rats. Stimulation of the pelvic and cavernous nerves elicited similar ICP(More)
Reflexogenic penile erections have been previously described in the rat. However, exact involvement of the corpus cavernosum in reflex responses is indefinite. We report changes in intracavernous pressure (ICP) recorded in 10 awake rats by means of a telemetric device. The ICP changes and penile reflex responses (lengthening of the penile body, glans(More)
The purpose of the present investigations was (1) to examine the spatial organization of preganglionic neurons of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus in the lumbosacral spinal cord of male adult rats and (2) to search, in this nucleus, for a possible segregation of sub-populations of neurons innervating the penis or the bladder, respectively. To estimate(More)
Penile erection can be elicited by various stimuli integrated in the spinal cord and/or higher central nervous structures. The medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus is known to play a key role in the regulation of the male sexual behavior. In anesthetized male rats we performed MPOA stimulation via stereotaxically implanted electrodes or canulae(More)
Penile erection is due to activation of proerectile neurons located in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of the L6-S1 spinal cord in the rat. Contraction of the ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus striated muscles, controlled by motoneurons located in the ventral horn of the L5-L6 spinal cord, reinforces penile erection. Physiological and pharmacological(More)
In the rat, spinal autonomic neurons controlling penile erection receive descending pathways that modulate their activity. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus contributes oxytocinergic fibers to the dorsal horn and preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic cell columns. We used retrograde tracing techniques with pseudorabies virus combined(More)
The role of peripheral parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways was explored in erectile responses elicited by hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) stimulation in adult male anesthetized rats. Under control conditions, MPOA stimulation reliably elicited erectile responses evidenced by an increase of the intracavernous pressure-to-blood pressure ratio.(More)