Olivier Mathieu

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The variability of structures supporting tissue oxygen transport (capillaries) and oxygen consumption (mitochondria) was analyzed in skeletal muscles of wildebeest and dik-dik. Regional differences in mitochondria and capillary densities within individual muscles were found for M. semitendinosus (twofold) but not for M. longissimus dorsi and diaphragm.(More)
The relationship between capillary density and mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle tissue is investigated on 25 African mammals ranging in body mass from 0.4 to 251 kg. As a general trend higher capillary densities, NA (c,f) are found in muscles with higher volume densities of mitochondria, Vv(mt,f). The individual data however show considerable(More)
Maintenance of CG methylation ((m)CG) patterns is essential for chromatin-mediated epigenetic regulation of transcription in plants and mammals. However, functional links between (m)CG and other epigenetic mechanisms in vivo remain obscure. Using successive generations of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant deficient in maintaining (m)CG, we find that (m)CG loss(More)
Microbial transformations of nitrification and denitrification are the main sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. Relative contributions of both processes to N2O emissions were estimated on an agricultural soil using 15N isotope tracers (15NH4+ or 15NO3-), for a 10-day batch experiment. Under unsaturated and saturated conditions, both processes were(More)
Constitutive heterochromatin comprising the centromeric and telomeric parts of chromosomes includes DNA marked by high levels of methylation associated with histones modified by repressive marks. These epigenetic modifications silence transcription and ensure stable inheritance of this inert state. Although environmental cues can alter epigenetic marks and(More)
The heterochromatic regions around centromeres of animal and plant chromosomes are composed of tandem repetitive sequences, interspersed with transposons and transposon derivatives. These sequences are largely transcriptionally silent and highly methylated, and are associated with specifically modified histones. Although embedded in heterochromatin,(More)
Transcriptional activity and structure of chromatin are correlated with patterns of covalent DNA and histone modification. Previous studies have revealed that high levels of histone H3 dimethylation at lysine 9 (H3K9me2), characteristic of transcriptionally silent heterochromatin in Arabidopsis, require hypermethylation of DNA at CpG sites. Here, we report(More)
Retrotransposons, which proliferate by reverse transcription of RNA intermediates, comprise a major portion of plant genomes. Plants often change the genome size and organization during evolution by rapid proliferation and deletion of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Precise transposon sequences throughout the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and the(More)
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that populate chromosomes, where the host largely controls their activities. In plants and mammals, retrotransposons are transcriptionally silenced by DNA methylation, which in Arabidopsis is propagated at CG dinucleotides by METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1). In met1 mutants, however, mobilization of retrotransposons(More)
Constitutive heterochromatin is a compact, transcriptionally inert structure formed in gene-poor and repeat- and transposon-rich regions. In Arabidopsis, constitutive heterochromatin is characterized by hypermethylated DNA and histone H3 dimethylated at lysine (K) 9 (H3K9me2) together with depletion of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me2). Here, we(More)