Olivier J Dutour

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Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most(More)
Depending on the general condition of fetal remains, forensic specialists might face difficulties concerning age estimation. Reference tables and regression equations are helpful devices in this task, although they are generally applied for complete fetuses or fetal remains including soft tissues. However, the problem of age estimation stays for osseous(More)
BACKGROUND Many soldiers in Napoleon's Grand Army died of infectious diseases during its retreat from Russia. Because soldiers were commonly infested with body lice, it has been speculated that louse-borne infectious diseases, such as epidemic typhus (caused by Rickettsia prowazekii), were common. METHODS We investigated this possibility during recent(More)
Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is manifested by the accretion of bone on the inner table of the frontal bone. Despite the vast literature on HFI, ambiguity exists as to its etiology, osteogenesis, demography, and history. This stimulated the present broad-scale study of HFI which included the evaluation of 1,706 early 20th century skulls (1,007 males(More)
Enthesopathies--that is, "musculo-skeletal stress markers"--are frequently used to reconstruct past lifestyles and activity patterns. Relatively little attention has been paid in physical anthropology to methodological gaps implicit in this approach: almost all methods previously employed neglect current medical insights into enthesopathies and the(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes in hospital inpatients and physicians towards Ramadan fasting and diabetes in Marseille. METHODOLOGY This cross-sectional study was conducted during the three months prior to the month of Ramadan. A total of 101 patients (age: 57±17 years) and 101 general practitioners (GPs) were recruited into the(More)
The 14th-18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague's persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other(More)
Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and(More)
This study was conducted to determine whether individual bony lesions are specific for recognizing multiple myeloma and thereby distinguish it from metastatic cancer and leukemia. The lytic skeletal lesions of multiple myeloma are characterized by sharply defined, spheroid lesions. They have smooth borders and effaced/erased trabeculae. Unique spheroid(More)
In forensic medicine, specialists might face difficulties when estimating age at death from fetal remains. Depending on the state of preservation, this age assessment is essentially based on the diaphyseal size of long bones. In a previous work, for the measurement of fetal femoral ossified shafts, we already established a simple and reliable method using a(More)