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In early Xenopus embryos, in which ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are not transcribed, rDNA replication initiates and terminates at 9- to 12-kilobase pair intervals, with no detectable dependence on specific DNA sequences. Resumption of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis at late blastula and early gastrula is accompanied by a specific repression of replication(More)
Although replication proteins are conserved among eukaryotes, the sequence requirements for replication initiation differ between species. In all species, however, replication origins fire asynchronously throughout S phase. The temporal program of origin firing is reproducible in cell populations but largely probabilistic at the single-cell level. The(More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic cells seem unable to monitor replication completion during normal S phase, yet must ensure a reliable replication completion time. This is an acute problem in early Xenopus embryos since DNA replication origins are located and activated stochastically, leading to the random completion problem. DNA combing, kinetic modelling and other(More)
Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells(More)
We have examined the replication patterns of ribosomal DNA plasmids in vivo and in vitro using Xenopus eggs. Plasmids carrying different parts of the Xenopus ribosomal DNA sequence were allowed to replicate either in vitro in an egg extract or in vivo after microinjection into unfertilized eggs. The replication intermediates were analyzed by the 2D gel(More)
Initiation of DNA replication is tightly controlled during the cell cycle to maintain genome integrity. In order to directly study this control we have previously established a cell-free system from human cells that initiates semi-conservative DNA replication. Template nuclei are isolated from cells synchronized in late G1 phase by mimosine. We have now(More)
An esterase gene from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that is responsible for resistance to a variety of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides was cloned in lambda gt11 phage. This gene was used to investigate the genetic mechanism of the high production of the esterase B1 it encodes in OP-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Tem-R strain) from(More)
Two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis was used to study termination of DNA replication in a shuttle vector, YRp7', when it replicated in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus egg extracts. In E. coli, the 2D gel patterns obtained were consistent with uni-directional replication initiated at a specific site, the ColE1 origin. In(More)
In higher eukaryotes, replication program specification in different cell types remains to be fully understood. We show for seven human cell lines that about half of the genome is divided in domains that display a characteristic U-shaped replication timing profile with early initiation zones at borders and late replication at centers. Significant overlap is(More)
Replication origins in Xenopus egg extracts are located at apparently random sequences but are activated in clusters that fire at different times during S phase under the control of ATR/ATM kinases. We investigated whether chromosomal domains and single sequences replicate at distinct times during S phase in egg extracts. Replication foci were found to(More)