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Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates at multiple origins. In early fly and frog embryos, chromosomal replication is very rapid and initiates without sequence specificity. Despite this apparent randomness, the spacing of these numerous initiation sites must be sufficiently regular for the genome to be completely replicated on time. Studies in various(More)
Neutral nucleotide substitutions occur at varying rates along genomes, and it remains a major issue to unravel the mechanisms that cause these variations and to analyze their evolutionary consequences. Here, we study the role of replication in the neutral substitution pattern. We obtained a high-resolution replication timing profile of the whole human(More)
Organophosphorus insecticide (OP) resistance in several Culex species is associated with increased esterase activity resulting from amplification of the corresponding structural gene. In Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, high levels of OP resistance (approximately 800 times) are due to the esterase B1 gene, which is amplified at least 250-fold. This gene has(More)
Chromosome replication initiates without sequence specificity at average intervals of approximately 10 kb during the rapid cell cycles of early Xenopus embryos. If the distribution of origins were random, some inter-origin intervals would be too long to be fully replicated before the end of S phase. To investigate what ensures rapid completion of DNA(More)
An esterase gene from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that is responsible for resistance to a variety of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides was cloned in lambda gt11 phage. This gene was used to investigate the genetic mechanism of the high production of the esterase B1 it encodes in OP-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Tem-R strain) from(More)
Replication of mammalian genomes starts at sites termed replication origins, which historically have been difficult to locate as a result of large genome sizes, limited power of genetic identification schemes, and rareness and fragility of initiation intermediates. However, origins are now mapped by the thousands using microarrays and sequencing techniques.(More)
A strict control of replication origin density and firing time is essential to chromosomal stability. Replication origins in early frog embryos are located at apparently random sequences, are spaced at close ( approximately 10-kb) intervals, and are activated in clusters that fire at different times throughout a very brief S phase. Using molecular combing(More)
We have analysed the replication of the chromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster in Xenopus embryos before the midblastula transition. Two-dimensional gel analysis showed that replication forks are associated with the nuclear matrix, as in differentiated cells, and gave no evidence for single-stranded replication intermediates (RIs). Bubbles, simple forks(More)
In early Xenopus embryos, in which ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are not transcribed, rDNA replication initiates and terminates at 9- to 12-kilobase pair intervals, with no detectable dependence on specific DNA sequences. Resumption of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis at late blastula and early gastrula is accompanied by a specific repression of replication(More)
We have analysed the role of topoisomerase II (topo II) in plasmid DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts, using specific inhibitors and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of replication products. Topo II is dispensable for nuclear assembly and complete replication of plasmid DNA but is required for plasmid unlinking. Extensive unlinking can occur in the(More)