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Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates at multiple origins. In early fly and frog embryos, chromosomal replication is very rapid and initiates without sequence specificity. Despite this apparent randomness, the spacing of these numerous initiation sites must be sufficiently regular for the genome to be completely replicated on time. Studies in various(More)
Chromosome replication initiates without sequence specificity at average intervals of approximately 10 kb during the rapid cell cycles of early Xenopus embryos. If the distribution of origins were random, some inter-origin intervals would be too long to be fully replicated before the end of S phase. To investigate what ensures rapid completion of DNA(More)
In early Xenopus embryos, in which ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are not transcribed, rDNA replication initiates and terminates at 9- to 12-kilobase pair intervals, with no detectable dependence on specific DNA sequences. Resumption of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis at late blastula and early gastrula is accompanied by a specific repression of replication(More)
A strict control of replication origin density and firing time is essential to chromosomal stability. Replication origins in early frog embryos are located at apparently random sequences, are spaced at close ( approximately 10-kb) intervals, and are activated in clusters that fire at different times throughout a very brief S phase. Using molecular combing(More)
Neutral nucleotide substitutions occur at varying rates along genomes, and it remains a major issue to unravel the mechanisms that cause these variations and to analyze their evolutionary consequences. Here, we study the role of replication in the neutral substitution pattern. We obtained a high-resolution replication timing profile of the whole human(More)
We have analysed the replication of the chromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster in Xenopus embryos before the midblastula transition. Two-dimensional gel analysis showed that replication forks are associated with the nuclear matrix, as in differentiated cells, and gave no evidence for single-stranded replication intermediates (RIs). Bubbles, simple forks(More)
An esterase gene from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that is responsible for resistance to a variety of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides was cloned in lambda gt11 phage. This gene was used to investigate the genetic mechanism of the high production of the esterase B1 it encodes in OP-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Tem-R strain) from(More)
Duplication of the eukaryotic genome depends on the temporal and spatial organization of DNA replication during the cell cycle. To investigate the genomic organization of DNA replication in a higher eukaryote, multiple origins of replication must be simultaneously analyzed over large regions of the genome as DNA synthesis progresses through S phase of the(More)
Although replication proteins are conserved among eukaryotes, the sequence requirements for replication initiation differ between species. In all species, however, replication origins fire asynchronously throughout S phase. The temporal program of origin firing is reproducible in cell populations but largely probabilistic at the single-cell level. The(More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic cells seem unable to monitor replication completion during normal S phase, yet must ensure a reliable replication completion time. This is an acute problem in early Xenopus embryos since DNA replication origins are located and activated stochastically, leading to the random completion problem. DNA combing, kinetic modelling and other(More)