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Laboratory research has shown that numerous environmental pollutants cause mammary gland tumors in animals; are hormonally active, specifically mimicking estrogen, which is a breast cancer risk factor; or affect susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. An assessment of epidemiologic research on these pollutants identified in toxicologic(More)
BACKGROUND Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in human blood samples has led to concern about possible toxicity. Several animal studies and one recent human study have suggested a link between exposure to PFCs and asthma, although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted. (More)
Secondhand smoke (SHS) and ambient air pollution (AAP) exposures have been associated with increased prevalence and severity of asthma and DNA modifications of immune cells. In the current study, we examined the association between SHS and AAP with DNA methylation and expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) in T cell(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited. METHODS We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons' age of pubertal onset in a(More)
Handling of Thermal Receipts as a Source of Exposure to Bisphenol A Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with adverse health outcomes, including reproductive function in adults1 and neurodevelopment in children exposed perinatally.2 Exposure to BPA is primarily through dietary ingestion, including consumption of canned foods.3 A(More)
OBJECTIVE In this systematic review we evaluated the evidence on the association between dioxin exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in humans. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION We conducted a PubMed search in December 2007 and considered all English-language epidemiologic studies and their citations regarding dioxin exposure and CVD mortality.(More)
BACKGROUND Limited human data suggest an association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with adverse effects on children's growth. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the associations of OCPs with longitudinally assessed growth among peripubertal boys from a Russian cohort with high environmental OCP levels. METHODS A cohort of 499 boys enrolled in the Russian(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Among the limitations of the concept of a sexually transmitted disease core is uncertainty about the stability of sexual behavior over time. The objective was to shed light on characteristics and stability of the core group by assessing sexual behavior longitudinally in a birth cohort. GOALS The goals were to describe group size(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated the association of blood lead levels (BLLs) with pubertal onset in a longitudinal cohort of Russian boys. METHODS A total of 489 Russian boys were enrolled in 2003-2005, at 8 to 9 years of age, and were monitored annually through May 2008. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate the association of BLLs at enrollment(More)
Big data is often discussed in the context of improving medical care, but it also has a less appreciated but equally important role to play in preventing disease. Big data can facilitate action on the modifiable risk factors that contribute to a large fraction of the chronic disease burden, such as physical activity, diet, tobacco use, and exposure to(More)