Olivier Hamant

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A central question in developmental biology is whether and how mechanical forces serve as cues for cellular behavior and thereby regulate morphogenesis. We found that morphogenesis at the Arabidopsis shoot apex depends on the microtubule cytoskeleton, which in turn is regulated by mechanical stress. A combination of experiments and modeling shows that a(More)
Morphogenesis during multicellular development is regulated by intercellular signaling molecules as well as by the mechanical properties of individual cells. In particular, normal patterns of organogenesis in plants require coordination between growth direction and growth magnitude. How this is achieved remains unclear. Here we show that in Arabidopsis(More)
During meiotic prophase I, traits are reassorted as a result of a highly organized process involving sister chromatid cohesion, homologous chromosome alignment, pairing, synapsis, and recombination. In the past two years, a number of components involved in this pathway, including Structure Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC), MRE11, the RAD51 homologs, BRCA2,(More)
Cell biology heavily relies on the behavior of fibrillar structures, such as the cytoskeleton, yet the analysis of their behavior in tissues often remains qualitative. Image analysis tools have been developed to quantify this behavior, but they often involve an image pre-processing stage that may bias the output and/or they require specific software. Here(More)
The KNAT2 (for KNOTTED-like from Arabidopsis thaliana 2) homeobox gene is expressed in the vegetative apical meristem. It is also active during flower development, suggesting a function in the structuring of flowers. To investigate its role, we used a DEXAMETHASONE (DEX)-inducible system to generate transgenic plants that overexpressed a fusion of KNAT2(More)
The homeobox gene family plays a crucial role during the development of multicellular organisms. The KNOTTED-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana (KNAT6 and KNAT2) are close relatives of the meristematic genes SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) and BREVIPEDICELLUS, but their function is not currently known. To investigate their role, we identified null alleles of(More)
Molecular mechanisms that initiate meiosis have been studied in fungi and mammals, but little is known about the mechanisms directing the meiosis transition in other organisms. To elucidate meiosis initiation in plants, we characterized and cloned the ameiotic1 (am1) gene, which affects the transition to meiosis and progression through the early stages of(More)
REC8 is a master regulator of chromatin structure and function during meiosis. Here, we dissected the functions of absence of first division (afd1), a maize rec8/alpha-kleisin homolog, using a unique afd1 allelic series. The first observable defect in afd1 mutants is the inability to make a leptotene chromosome. AFD1 protein is required for elongation of(More)
The presence of diffuse morphogen gradients in tissues supports a view in which growth is locally homogenous. Here we challenge this view: we used a high-resolution quantitative approach to reveal significant growth variability among neighboring cells in the shoot apical meristem, the plant stem cell niche. This variability was strongly decreased in a(More)
In multicellular organisms, the coordination of cell behaviors largely relies on biochemical and biophysical signals. Understanding how such signals control development is often challenging, because their distribution relies on the activity of individual cells and, in a feedback loop, on tissue behavior and geometry. This review focuses on one of the(More)