Olivier Goureau

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During development, progenitor cells of the retina give rise to six principal classes of neurons and the Müller glial cells found within the adult retina. The pancreas transcription factor 1 subunit a (Ptf1a) encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor necessary for the specification of horizontal cells and the majority of amacrine cell subtypes(More)
PURPOSE The retinal progenitors are multipotential, and the decision taken by a progenitor to differentiate along a particular path depends on both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, added to rat postnatal retinal progenitors inhibits rod photoreceptor cell(More)
Progress in retinal-cell therapy derived from human pluripotent stem cells currently faces technical challenges that require the development of easy and standardized protocols. Here, we developed a simple retinal differentiation method, based on confluent human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC), bypassing embryoid body formation and the use of(More)
White matter axons organize into fascicles that grow over long distances and traverse very diverse environments. The molecular mechanisms preserving this structure of white matter axonal tracts are not well known. Here, we used the optic nerve as a model and investigated the role of TAG-1, a cell adhesion molecule expressed by retinal axons. TAG-1 was first(More)
An in vitro model of human CMV infection of primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was used to study the effects of cytokines on CMV replication in these cells, which are targets of CMV infection in vivo. IFN-gamma and IFN-beta were potent inhibitors of CMV replication in RPE cells, while TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, or TGF-beta2 did not affect viral(More)
PURPOSE Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). This study was undertaken to localize the cells, in the eye, which express iNOS during EIU in the rat. METHODS EIU was induced in Lewis rats by a single foot pad injection of 150 micrograms lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from(More)
Recent works have highlighted the role of nitric oxide in a wide array of disease entities, including septic shock, hypertension, cerebral ischemia, and chronic degenerative diseases of the nervous system. The functions of nitric oxide appear very diverse, having actions on vascular tone, neurotransmission, immune cytotoxicity, and many others. Nitric oxide(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) exhibits multiple biological effects during vertebrate retinogenesis, including regulation of photoreceptor cell differentiation. In the early postnatal mouse retina, CNTF induces rapid and transient phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3 and the extracellular(More)
Intravitreal neovascular diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. It remains unclear why neovessels in many retinal diseases spread into the physiologically nonvascularized vitreous rather than into the ischemic retinal areas, where the angiogenic factors are released. Here we show that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in the(More)
Retinal Müller glial cells express the inducible isoform (-2) of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) in vitro after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or in vivo in some retinal pathologies. Because NO may have beneficial or detrimental effects in the retina, we have used cocultures of retinal neurons with retinal Müller(More)