Olivier George

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Drug addiction has been conceptualized as a chronically relapsing disorder of compulsive drug seeking and taking that progresses through three stages: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Drug addiction impacts multiple motivational mechanisms and can be conceptualized as a disorder that progresses from positive(More)
Several neuropsychological hypotheses have been formulated to explain the transition to addiction, including hedonic allostasis, incentive salience, and the development of habits. A key feature of addiction that remains to be explored is the important individual variability observed in the propensity to self-administer drugs, the sensitivity to(More)
Chronic intermittent access to alcohol leads to the escalation of alcohol intake, similar to binge drinking in humans. Converging lines of evidence suggest that impairment of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) cognitive function and overactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are key factors that lead to excessive drinking in dependence.(More)
Humans with drug addiction exhibit compulsive drug-seeking associated with impairment of prefrontal cortex cognitive function. Whether prefrontal cortex dysfunction is a consequence of chronic drug exposure, or mediates the transition from drug use to drug dependence, is unknown. The current study investigates whether a history of escalated vs controlled(More)
Nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient of tobacco, induces negative emotional symptoms during abstinence that contribute to a profound craving for nicotine. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying how nicotine produces dependence remains poorly understood. We demonstrate one mechanism for both the anxiety-like symptoms of withdrawal and(More)
Extended access to cocaine produces an increase in cocaine self-administration in rats that mimics aspects of compulsive drug intake in human addicts. Although emerging evidence implicates the endogenous cannabinoid system in aspects of opioid and ethanol addiction, a role of the endocannabinoid system in cocaine addiction remains widely inconclusive. Here,(More)
The abuse of opioid drugs, both illicit and prescription, is a persistent problem in the United States, accounting for >1.2 million users who require treatment each year. Current treatments rely on suppressing immediate withdrawal symptoms and replacing illicit drug use with long-acting opiate drugs. However, the mechanisms that lead to preventing opiate(More)
Accumulating evidence demonstrates a functional role for the hippocampus in mediating relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior and extinction-induced inhibition of cocaine seeking, and dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the hippocampus may have a role. Here, we tested the hypothesis that disruption of normal hippocampal activity during extinction alters relapse to(More)
Alcoholism, or alcohol use disorder, is a major public health concern that is a considerable risk factor for morbidity and disability; therefore, effective treatments are urgently needed. Here, we demonstrated that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone reduces alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent rats but not in nondependent animals. Both(More)
In humans and animals, individual differences in aging of cognitive functions are classically reported. Some old individuals exhibit performances similar to those of young subjects while others are severely impaired. In senescent animals, we have previously demonstrated a significant correlation between the cognitive performance and the cerebral(More)