Olivier Geffard

Learn More
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50(96 h)=82.1 microgL(-1), LC50(120 h)=37.1 microgL(-1), LC50(168 h)=21.6 microgL(-1), LC50(264 h)=10.5(More)
In order to characterize the genotoxicity in the Seine estuary and Seine bay, chemical and toxicological analyses were performed on 17 sediments collected in June 2001 and June 2003. Many potent mutagenic and/or carcinogenic compounds - including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals - were detected. Those(More)
Sediments represent a vast sink for contaminants in aquatic systems, and may pose a threat to pelagic and benthic organisms. The objective of this research was to determine the bioavailability and toxicity of sediment-associated PAHs and heavy metals, using embryos and larvae of the oyster Crassostrea gigas, exposed to two sediment fractions: the whole(More)
In situ feeding assays implemented with transplanted crustacean gammarids have been claimed as promising tools for the diagnostic assessment of water quality. Nevertheless the implementation of such methodologies in biomonitoring programs is still limited. This is explained by the necessity to improve the reliability of these bioassays. The present study(More)
Abstract-Surface sediment samples from 10 coastal locations were analyzed with respect to their physical and chemical characteristics as well as their biological quality. The toxicity of the decanted fresh and freeze-dried sediments and of their elutriates was assessed by bioassays with embryos of the oysters Crassostrea gigas. The concentration inhibiting(More)
The aim of this study was to characterize cholinesterase (ChE) activity in Gammarus pulex, an abundant and ecologically relevant species of the European stream environment. Biochemical and pharmacological properties were tested using different substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide and butyrylthiocholine iodide) and selective(More)
Knowledge of the subcellular behavior of toxicants, mainly metals, in living organisms is fundamental for understanding their toxicological consequences at individual and trans-generation levels and throughout the food web. However, different partitioning methodologies are available in the literature, particularly concerning the cytosolic fraction.(More)
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is widely distributed across phyla and plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. However, most studies on CYP system were developed on vertebrates and among invertebrates, gastropod molluscs are rarely used. In this context, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and(More)
The induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis is widely accepted as a biomarker of estrogenic exposure in male and juvenile fish. Vtg synthesis has emerged as an interesting endpoint to assess endocrine disruptor (ED) effects in crustaceans. However, studies reporting induction of Vtg in male crustaceans are lacking. This study investigated the expression(More)
Physiological and behavioural responses of the acid-sensitive amphipod Gammarus pulex exposed to a wide range of acid conditions (pH 4.1, 5.1, 6.0) under laboratory conditions were investigated. An exposure of 38 h to acid conditions caused significant decreases in survival rate, osmolality, haemolymph Na+ concentration, ventilatory and locomotor activity(More)