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Although genetic and biochemical evidence has established that GroES is required for the full function of the molecular chaperone, GroEL, little is known about the molecular details of their interaction. GroES enhances the cooperativity of ATP binding and hydrolysis by GroEL (refs 4, 5) and is necessary for release and folding of several GroEL substrates.(More)
The products of the groES and groEL genes of Escherichia coli, constituting the groE operon, are known to be required for growth at high temperature (42 degrees C) and are members of the heat shock regulon. Using a genetic approach, we examined the requirement for these gene products for bacterial growth at low temperature (17 to 30 degrees C). To do this,(More)
We have studied the export of two human proteins in the course of their production in Escherichia coli. The coding sequences of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and of interleukin 13 were fused to those of two synthetic signal sequences to direct the human proteins to the bacterial periplasm. We found that the total amount of protein(More)
We identified and cloned an Escherichia coli gene called htrA (high temperature requirement). The htrA gene was originally discovered because mini-Tn10 transposon insertions in it allowed E. coli growth at 30 degrees C but prevented growth at elevated temperatures (above 42 degrees C). The htrA insertion mutants underwent a block in macromolecular synthesis(More)
Members of the IS3 family of insertion sequences are found in a wide range of bacteria. At least 10 members of this family carry two major open reading frames: a small upstream frame (0 phase), and a longer downstream frame in the -1 phase. The downstream frame shows significant similarity at the amino acid level. A highly conserved region of this frame(More)
The proteins expressed by insertion sequence IS911, a member of the widespread IS3 family of elements, have been analyzed. The results indicate that three major species are produced from two consecutive reading frames. A protein of Mr 11,500, ORFA, is synthesized from an upstream reading frame. A larger protein, ORFAB, uses the same initiation codon and is(More)
Twenty-nine clear-plaque mutants of bacteriophage lambda were isolated from a Shigella dysenteriae lysogen. Three were associated with insertions in the cI gene: two were due to insertion of IS600, and the third resulted from insertion of a new element, IS911. IS911 is 1,250 base pairs (bp) long, carries 27-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and(More)
We have investigated the role of three IS911-specified proteins in transposition in vivo: the products of the upstream (OrfA) and downstream (OrfB) open reading frames, and a transframe protein (OrfAB) produced by -1 translational frameshifting between orfA and orfB. The production of OrfAB alone is shown to lead both to excision and to circularization of(More)