Olivier Chaloin

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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a primate lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to the virion structural proteins and enzyme precursors, that are Gag, Env and Pol, HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, notably a small nuclear transcriptional activator named Tat. The Tat protein is(More)
BACKGROUND During HIV-1 infection, the Tat protein plays a key role by transactivating the transcription of the HIV-1 proviral DNA. In addition, Tat induces apoptosis of non-infected T lymphocytes, leading to a massive loss of immune competence. This apoptosis is notably mediated by the interaction of Tat with microtubules, which are dynamic components(More)
The Trans-activator protein (Tat) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a pleiotropic protein involved in different aspects of AIDS pathogenesis. As a number of viral proteins Tat is suspected to disturb mitochondrial function. We prepared pure synthetic full-length Tat by native chemical ligation (NCL), and Tat peptides, to evaluate their direct effects(More)
The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4(+) T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) invades the brain early in infection and may cause HIV-associated dementia (HAD), which is characterized by reactive astrocytes, and macrophage and T-cell infiltrates. HIV-1 Tat protein is thought to contribute to HAD by transactivating host genes, such as that encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2),(More)
The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4 + T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical(More)
Recent contributions have demonstrated that actively secreted Tat protein plays an important functional role in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection and that Tat antibodies might interfere with disease progression by blocking the protein extracellularly. In this context we have studied the recognition of several Tat mutants as well as various(More)
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